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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
- change or stability in mental abilities
- such as learning, attention, memory, language, thinking, reasoning, and creativity
- thought development over time
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
- Growth of body and brain and change or stability in sensory capacities, motor skills, and health
- gros (coordination) and fine motor skills (writing)
PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
- change and stability in emotions, personality, and social relationships
- what a child looks for in a friend. They become more selective as to who they hang out with as they get older
MAJOR DIVISIONS OF LIFESPAN
- accepted in western industrial societies
1. Prenatal Period (conception to birth)
2. Infancy and toddlerhood
3. Early Childhood
4. Middle Childhood
5. Adolescence
6. Young adulthood
7. Middle Adulthood
8. Late Adulthood
SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION
- Concept about the nature of reality, based on societally shared perceptions or assumptions
- There is no defined moment when a child becomes an adult or a young person becomes old
- In some cultures a child is an adult at puberty. This distinction depends on the society.
John Locke
- 1632-1704
- 17th century British philosopher
- writings served as a forerunner for 20th century behaviorism
- Forerunner of mechanistic model (views development as a passive, predictable response to stimuli)
- Viewed child as a tabula rasa (blank slate)
- Children begin with nothing at all, and it is experiences that shape their development
- Nurture
- Parents mold and shape children
- behind everything is environment and experiences shape and explains development
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
- shaped by unconscious forces that motivate behavior
- Sigmund Freud (psychosexual) and Erik Erikson (psychosocial)
- The human beinng develops psychoanalytic theory but everything it does is unconscious
SIGMUND FREUD
- psychosexual development
- emphasizes how parents should manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives in the frist few years of life because its crucial for healthy personality development.
- gratification shifts from the mouth to the anus and then to the genitals
EGO
- represents reason
- develops gradually during the first year or so of life and operates under the reality principle
- aim is to find realistic way to gradify the id (pleasure principle)
- acts as a mediator between the impulses of the id and the demands of the superego
SUPEREGO
- develops during early childhood
- includes the conscious
- incorporates socially approved shoulds and should nots into the child's value system
- If its standards are not met the child may feel guilty or anxious
ERICKSON'S FIRST STAGE OF PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY
- Trust vs. Mistrust
- 0-1 year (Birth to 12-18 months)
- Baby develops a sense of whether the world is a good and safe place
- People need to trust the world and the people in it, but they also need to learn some mistrust to protect themselves from danger
- develops hope
- attachment
- waiting too long for comfort
ERICKSON'S FIFTH STAGE OF PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY
- Identity vs. Identity Confusion
- puberty to young adulthood
- Adolescent must determine own sense of self (Who am I) or experience confusion about future adult roles
- develops fidelity
BEHAVIORISM
- learning theory
- emphasizes the predictable role of environment in causing observable behavior
- predictable response to experience
- focuses on associative learning (a mental link between two events)
- Ivan Pavlov (classical conditioning)
- B.F. Skinner (operant conditioning)
- Albert Bandura (social learning through observational learning)
BEHAVIORISTS
- view the environment as much more influential than the biology that sets limits on people
- human beings at all ages learn about the world the same way other organisms do: by reacting to conditions, or aspects of their environment, that they find pleasing, painful, or threatening
- look for events that determine whether or not a particular behavior will be repeated
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
- Learning based on association of a stimulus that does not ordinarily elicit a response with another stimulus that does elicit the response.
- dog salivating at dinner bell
OPERANT CONDITIONING
- learning based on reinforcement or punishment
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
- theory that behaviors are learned by observing and imitating models
4 STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
1. Sensorimotor (0-2)
2. Preoperational (2-7)
3. Concrete Operations (7-11) NOT EGOCENTRIC
4. Formal Operations (11>)
URIE BROFENBRENNER
- developed bioecological theory in contextual perspective (individual is inseparable from the social context)
- describes the range of interacting influences that affect a developing person
- every biological organism develops within the context of ecological systems that support or stifle its growth
- understanding processes and contexts of development
- contextual systems are centered around the individual person
LEV VYGOTSKY
- prominent component of contextual perspective
- focuses on the social, cultural, and historical complex of which the child is a part
- sociocultural theory stresses child's active engagement with their environment.
- Children learn from adults and in social settings
- Zone of Proximal Development determines that gap between what a child is able to do and what they are not quite ready to accomplish themselves
- Scaffolding
SCAFFOLDING
- temporary support from parents, teachers, or others given to a child to do a task until the child can do it on its own and master it
NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION
- common in qualitative research
- researchers look at people in real-life settings
- researchers do not alter behavior or the environment but simply record what they see.
CONTROL GROUP
In an experiment, a group of people, similar to those in the experimental group, who do not receive the treatment whose effects are to be measured
LONGITUDINAL STUDIES
- designed to assess changes in a sample over time
- researchers study the same person or persons more than once, sometimes years apart and sometimes decades
FERTILIZATION
- union of sperm and ovum fuse to produce a zygote
- also called conception
MEIOSIS
- type of cell division in which each sex cell (gamete) ends up with on ly 23 chromosomes
MITOSIS
- type of cell division in which each cell divides in half over and over again, resulting in new cells with 46 chromosomes
HERITABILITY FACTORS FOR BIRTHS
- mother's body releases two ova within a short time and both ovums are fertilized creating dizygotic twins (fraternal)
- single fertilized ovum splits into 2 creating monozygotic twins (identical)
- woman of one ethnic group may be more likely to release more than one ovum because of hormonal tendencies
- multiple births are more common in older women
- fertility drugs
- monozygotic twins are twice as genetically similar as dizygotic twins
ZYGOTE
- one-celled organism resulting from fertilization
- fertilized egg
AMNIOTIC SAC
- provides an environment that is temperature and humidity controlled and shock proof
- the amniotic fluid is the fetal urine after 16 weeks
AMNIOCENTESIS
- sample of amniotic fluid (contains fetal cells) is withdrawn and analyzed to detect the presence of certain genetic or multifactorial defects and all recognizable chromosomal disorders
- recommended for women 35 years and older
- Also recommended for a family hisory of genetic diseases or if both parents are known carriers of Tay-Ssachs and Sickle cell anemia.
- reveals the sex of the baby and therefore can also diagnose sex-linked disorders
TERATOGENS
- environmental agents that cause birth defects
- sensitivity to teratogens begins about 3 weeks after conception
- types of teratogens are alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, heroine
END OF THE SECOND STAGE OF CHILD BIRTH
- baby is born but still attached to placenta byb the umbilical cord
3rd STAGE OF CHILD BIRTH
- after birth
- full expulsion of birthing materials
- placenta and umbilical cord is expelled
AVERAGE WEIGHT OF A NEWBORN
- 5.5 to 10 pounds
- average weight is 7.5 pounds
APGAR SCALE
- standard measurement of a newborn's condition
- it assesses appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, and respiration
- 2 is the highest score that can be received in each of the 5 areas of the tests
- highest overall score is a 10
CEPHALOCAUDAL PRINCIPLE
- principle that the development proceeds in a head-to-tail direction
- upper parts of the body develop before the lower parts
PROXIMODISTAL PRINCIPLE
- principle that development proceeds from within to without
- the parts of the body near the center develop before the extremities
TWO COMPONENTS OF THE CNS
- brain
- spinal cord
MOTOR REFLEXES
- Gross motor skills require large muscles like rolling over and catching a ball
- Fine motor skills use small muscles such as grasping a rattle and copying a circle
GRASPING REFLEX
- If the palm of the infant's hand is stroked the hand closes tightly
- babies are born with it
FUNCTIONS OF THE LEFT HEMISPHERE OF THE BRAIN
- concerned with language and logical thinking
- uas the ability to share information with the right hemisphere by the corpus callosum
GLIAL CELLS
- support and protect the neurons in the brain
HEAD CONTROL
- babies are bron and can turn their heads from side to side while laying on their backs
- lift their heads higher and higher
- by 4 months all infants can hold their head erect while being held or supported in a seated position
HAND CONTROL
- born with grasping reflex
- grasp moderate size objects at 3.5 months
- pick up tiny objects between 7 and 11 months
- Builds a tower with cubes at 15 months
- After 3 years can draw a circle
LOCOMOTION
- 3 months infant roles
- 6 months baby sits up
- 6-10 months baby starts crawling
- 7 months stands while holding on to furniture
- 11.5 months baby stands alone
- 1 year begins walking
- 2 years climbs stairs and runs and jumps
- 3.5 years can balance on one foot and hop and jump