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171 Cards in this Set

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The same cells divide the same way in every individual in the species.
Invariant cell lineage
Germ line (P4)
Future sperm/ egg
Death is the fate of some cells. A series of genes governs survival or death of each cell.
Programmed cell death
mRNA or protein placed by the mother into the egg for use by zygote/ embryo in its early development.
Maternal product
What genes control events in early embryogenesis?
Maternal products control early patterning events
Hermaphrodites whose offspring are all abnormal.
Partitioning defect
Cytoplasmic factors e.g. proteins or RNA, whose presence in a cell determines the fate it will acquire.
Morphogenetic determinant
Where do the par proteins localize in the cell?
par-3: gene has unknown function (novel)
par-2: zinc binding protein, outermost cytoplasm of 1 cell
par-1: serine/ threonine kinase
- maternal
Cell obtains their fate "independently" of neighbors; cell fate based on cell-intrinsic information (within cell).
Particular cells may have "fixed" cell fates, internally controlled.
Autonomous specification
Extensive cell autonomous specification gives rise to a pattern of embryogenesis, has no ability to compensate if cells removed.
Mosaic development
Organism with both male and female reproductive organs.
Hermaphrodite
Waxy coat of a nematode.
Hypodermis
Reproductive system (U shaped in nematode).
Gonad
Body cavity
Pseudocoelom
Cell fates depend on interactions among cells, associated with variable cleavage patterns - no fixed cell fates.
Conditional specification
If some cells (fates) are missing, other neighboring cells make up the difference so you ultimately get a complete organism.
Regulative development
(frog/ sea urchin)
Coordinate cell division and cytoplasmic localization, products are maternal.
Par genes
Act like a morphogenetic determinant of the germline.
P granules
Cells that determine other cells to adopt a certain fate.
Founder cells
Determine side of the organism, anterior - present, posterior - absent (sperm entry point).
Pronucleus
Each with a maturing oocyte and nurse cells, oogenesis occurs here
Egg chamber
Nuclei share a common cytoplasm, formed through superficial cleavage
Syncitial blastoderm
Created by cellularization, single layer of cells surround central yolk
Cellular blastoderm
Nuclei partitioned by invagination of cell membrane and associated microfilaments.
Cellularization
Future germ line encased at posterior end
Pole cells
Prospective mesoderm, invaginates and closes during gastrulation
Ventral furrow
Forms during gastrulation separating anterior end.
Cephalic furrow
ATPase, protein allowing for propulsion.
Dynein
?
Kinesin
Ectoderm + mesoderm that become the future trunk of the embryo, along the ventral midline
Germ band
?
Follicle cells
Another name for the epidermis.
Cuticle
Middle portion of an organisms body plan, wings located here.
Thoracic segments
Posterior to thorax, most posterior portion of a body plan, anterior to telson.
Abdominal segments
Mutation that kills the embryo.
Embryonic lethal mutation
Loss of structure and duplication of another.
Loss of function mutation
mRNA and protein gradients (anterior - posterior patterning).
Maternal effect genes
Zygotic, regulated in broad patches/ stripes of anterior - posterior patterning.
Segmentation genes
Expressed in segments, if missing effect that causes a loss of contiguous body segments.
Gap genes
Genes that show up in stripe patterns in every other parasegment (7 stripes) regulated by gap genes
- Segment polarity genes
- Homeotic genes
Pair-rule genes
Expressed in 1/2 of each parasegments (anterior or posterior), regulated by upstream gradients/ stripes.
Segment polarity genes
?
homeotic selector genes
Morphogen for head structures (anterior morphogen).
- high: acron
- med: head
- low: thorax
- none: abdomen/ telson
Bicoid gene
Morphogen for posterior structures.
Nanos gene
Activate head genes, repress abdominal genes, activated by bicoid.
Hunchback gene
?
Larval acron
?
Larval telson
Gap gene TF that represses transcription of eve (pair rule gene).
Giant
Genes responsible for the specification of body parts
- drastic mutant phenotypes
Homeotic Complex (hom-c)
Expression of genes, 1/2 of segments (anterior and posterior of another).
Parasegments
Represents morphological sections of larva anterior to posterior.
Segments
Bristled parts of segments.
Denticles
Part of Drosophila that help balance while flying (on 3rd thoracic segment), instead of 2 sets of wings.
Haltere
Repressed by knirps, activated by low hunchback gene, gap gene.
Kruppel gene
Even parasegments express pair rule genes.
Fushi tarazu (ftz)
Odd parasegments express pair rule genes.
Even skipped (eve)
Deletion of one segment that is transformed into another segment (3rd thorax into 2nd thorax - 2 sets of wings and no haltere).
Ultrabithorax gene
Codes for the development to legs in place of the antenna.
Antennapedia gene
"antenna feet" misexpression, legs rather than antennae grow from head sockets.
Antennapedia complex
Develop posterior portion of the body plan, where ulbrabithorax gene is expressed.
Bithorax complex
Outside factors, gradients, TF, other genes effect the segmentation of gene expression, each location on anterior/ posterior axis has a unique combination of amounts of 4 maternal factors.
Cross regulation
TF, dorsalized, specify ventral fates, cells move into nucleus on ventral side.
Dorsal gene
TF, ventralized, specify dorsal fates.
Cactus gene
Sent out in early oogenesis to signal to follicle cells, secreted by nucleus, inhibit pipe synthesis, dorsalized.
Gurken gene
Receptor for Gurken gene.
Torpedo gene
Synthesized in ventral follicle cells, inhibited by Gurken, separates dorsal and cactus.
Pipe gene
Expression occurs in defined regions along the anterior/ posterior axis, important in telling cell what to become.
Hox gene
Nucleus in posterior moves along the microtubules to future dorsal side, nucleus sends out the Gurken protein signal to the overlying follicle cells.
Mid-oogenesis
Stage where nucleus in posterior sends Gurken protein signals to the follicle cells and they signal back.
Early oogenesis
Genes similar in sequence.
Homologous genes
Closest gene relative within a species, all derived from same ancestor but different function.
Paralogous gene.
Mutations resulting in a homeotic transformation.
Homeotic mutants
One body structure is replaced by a different body structure.
Homeotic transformation
Any gene that can mutate to produce a homeotic transformation; these genes specify body segment identity.
Homeotic gene
Gene order on the genetic map parallels the order of expression in the body.
Colinearity Principle
Conserved DNA sequence, anterior/ posterior axis determination.
Homeobox
60 amino acid translation of homeobox sequence.
Homeodomain
Defects localize to a discrete region of the anterior/ posterior axis (neck cartilage, thyroid, major blood vessels, heart, not homeotic mutation).
Hoxa-3 gene
Mutate anterior most lumbar to thoracic and make extra rib, each vertebrae has its own Hox gene, homiotic mutation.
Hoxc-8 gene
Prevent ribs from growing from lumber and pelvic vertebrae.
Hox 10 paralogs
Genes with the same function.
Genetic redundancy
Cluster on chromosome 3 containing homeotic genes.
Hom-C complex
Development and maturation of germ cells through meiosis.
Gametogenesis
Stem cells that are the source of gemetes.
Primordial germ cells
The overall process by which haploid sperm produce from diploid spermatogonia.
Spermatogenesis
Divide by mitosis to produce the primary spermatocytes.
Spermatogonia
Haploid egg formed from diploid oogenia.
Oogenesis
Primordial germ cells that go through mitosis into secondary spermatocyte.
Primary spermatocyte
Primary spermatocytes that are copied and replicated into 2c haploid cells through Meiosis I.
Secondary spermatocyte
Division of secondary spermatocytes into 1c haploid cells through Meiosis II.
Spermatids
Differentiation of spermatids mature into sperm cells, take on the roll to fertilize an egg.
Spermiogenesis
Sperm cell, mature gamete.
Spermatozoa/ spermatozoon
What links spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes together during mitosis.
Cytoplasmic bridges
Small tubes within the testis that produce sperm.
Seminiferous tubules
Cells that secrete testosterone, interstitial cells.
Leydig cells
End of the vas deferens that stores sperm.
Epididymis
Produce sperm within small seminiferous tubules.
Testis
Tubes that transfer sperm from the testis to the seminary vesicle.
Vas deferense
Hormone that stimulates formation of male genetalia.
Testosterone
Hormone stimulating ovulation.
Estrogen
Bundle of microtubules and other proteins forming the core of the flagellum.
Axoneme
Periodic swellings that divide each with a different fate.
Rhombomeres
Cells set aside from somatic cells in the embryo for reproductive function. Gonadal cells that undergo meiosis.
Germ cells
Cells of the embryo not used in reproduction.
Somatic cells
Promotes sperm formation.
Sertoli cell
Egg primary germ cell.
Oogonia
Provide seminal fluids.
Prostate gland
Seminal vesicles
Tail of sperm.
Flagellar tail
Vesicle containing binding molecules.
Acrosome
Form microtubules in the axoneme.
Tubulin
Lost cytoplams of spermotid.
Residual body
From which sperm tail originates.
Centriole
Divided oogania by mitosis.
Primary oocyte
Divided by meiosis from primary oocyte.
Secondary oocyte
Primary oocyte surrounded by a layer of granulosa cells surrounded in turn by thecal cells.
Primordial (primary) follicle
Cells surrounding the primary follicle.
Granulosa cells
Cells surrounding the granulosa cells and primary follicle filler cells.
Thecal cells
Fluid filled space surrounded by granulosa cells.
Antrum
Death of germ cells over course of life.
Atresia
Creation of Graafian follicle and egg, under control of gonadotrophins (endocrine system).
Follicular phase in menstral cycle
LH creates corpus luteum with increased progesterone. Increased progesterone leads to an increase in endometrium while inhibiting FSH, start ovulation, stimulate hormone production and uterin lining.
Luteal phase of menstrual cycle
Steroid hormone important in maintaining pregnancy (increase in luteal phase).
Progesterone
Hormones in ovaries responsible for menstral cycle.
Ovarian hormones
Hormones (FSH & LH) from anterior pituitary that coordinates the ovarian cycle and uterine cycle - endocrine hormone.
Gonadotropins
Initiate ovulation with increasing levels.
Luteinizing hormone
(LH)
A peptide hormone secreted by pituitary gland that promotes follicle development and spermatogenisis.
Follicle stimulation hormone
(FSH)
Epithelial lining of the uterus.
Endometrium
"The clear zone" layer secreted by the oocyte, present between oocyte and granulosa cells.
Zona pellucida
In egg that holds proteolytic enzymes.
Corticle granules
Granulosa cells that surround the oocyte in the Graafian follicle.
Cumulus oophorus
Mature follicle with a large fluid-filled antrum and a secondary oocyte.
Graafian follicles
Release of the secondary oocyte into the infundibulum occurs.
Ovulation
"The yellow body" evolves from the granulosa and theca cells remaining in the ovary after ovulation and some surrounding capillaries and connective tissue.
Corpus luteum
"The white body" a white scar that comes about after several months once the corpus luteum undergoes apoptosis.
Corpus albicans
Molecules secreted by females to increase speed of sperm.
Hyperactivation
Temperature gradient in which sperm swim to.
Thermoaxis
Chemical signaling helping the sperm to find the egg.
Chemotaxis
Sperm maturation, transition sperm to become capable of fertilizing an egg.
Capacitation
Vesicle in sperm containing binding components.
Acrosomal vesicle
Binding of sperm to zona pellucida in sea urchin stimulated by ZP3.
Acrosomal process
Binds sperm to zona pellucida in mammals, initiates slow block to polyspermy.
ZP3
Morphological smoothing of blastoceal cavity.
Compaction
Fluid filled cavity of the blastoceal.
Cavitation
Trypsin like protease secreted from trophoblast cells and facillates hatching from the zona pellucida.
Strypsin
Water sac, membrane enclosing and protecting the embryo and its surrounding amniotic fluid.
Amnion
Cavity filled with amniotic fluid, surrounded by epiblast.
Amniotic cavity
Layer that will form the chorionic villi (fingerlike projections).
Cytotrophoblast
Nuclear division occurs w/o cytokinesis; cells grow deep into endometrium and remodel the uterine wall so maternal blood vessels bathe fetal vessels.
Syncytiotrophoblast
An agent that can cause birth defects if exposure to a fetus occurs at a critical time in pregnancy.
Teratogen
Derivative of vitamin A, naturally occuring in the body, regulate hox genes, high doses can change identity of cells.
Retinoic acid
Teratogen, cause deafness in phetus
Quinine
Brain defect that effects vocab and mental retardation.
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Mimic body's long range signaling mechanisms, underdevelopment of phetus, endocrine disruptor.
DES (diethylstilbestrol)
Secreted by trophoblast cells to maintain uterine lining. What pregnancy tests test for.
Human chorionic gonadotrophin
Mirror image of organs in the body.
Situs inversus
Normal orientation of organs in the body.
Situs solitus
Having a non super imposable mirror image.
Chirality
50% reversal, some lethality, gene produced by dynein.
iv (situs inversus viscerum) gene
100% reversal with 100% lethality.
inv gene
50% reversal, unknown lethality, from dynein.
Kartegener's syndrome
50% reversal, lethal, no nodal cilia.
KIF3 beta gene
A cilia that exists once per cell, present on outside of embryo tissues in node cells.
Monocilia
Coding for model formation.
Nodal gene
Results from paracrine factor cascade. TF activating left hand genes, left side morphogen.
Pitx2
Gene encoding for activin on right hand side.
Activin receptor II gene
Only on left side of starting at Hensens node. Inhibited by activin on the right side.
Sonic hedgeghod gene (shh)
At midline preventing factors from moving into right side.
Lefty-1 gene
Malposition of an organ.
Ectopic
Cells migrate to interior and anterior, make primitive streak longer and longer.
Henson's node
Where cells migrate to interior (furrow) in gastrulation.
Primitive streak
Particles (FGF, NVP) swept from right to left by clockwise motion of cilia.
Nodal vesicular particles (NVP)