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12 Cards in this Set

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Genotype vs. Phenotype
Geno type refers to characteristics that coded on the genes; Phenotype refers to observable & measurable characteristics. Phenotype - physical traits (height & eyes)
Reaction Range
Genetic endowment sets a range (upper & lower boundaries) for development for a particular trait.
Critical & Sensitive Periods
Critical Period - limited time span during which a person is biologically prep to acquire bx, but requires the presence of environmental stimuli. Sensitive period - capacities can develop at an earlier or later time.
Maturation
genetically-determined patterns of development (learning to walk)
Canalization
relatively resistant to environmental forces; used to describe narrow developmental path that characteristics take (i.e., sensorimotor)
Secular Trends
Differences in the timing of physical changes that are found in children belonging to different cohorts (i.e., onset of menarch)
Heritability Index
Estimate the degree a particular characteristic can be attributed to genetics. Studies produces indices ranging .30 - .70 w/average .50.
Chromosomes
Genetic Inheritance; 23 pairs in ea. cell; 22 pairs homologous (exact)known as autosomes; 23rd sex chromosome not homologous (XX or XY)
Dominant vs. Recessive Genes
dominant-dominant or recessive-recessive from both parents. when different the dominant will determine the character.
Sex-Linked Characteristics
Some recessive characteristics are carried only on the X or, less commonly, the Y chromosome.
PKU - Phenylketonuria
lack enzyme needed to digest amno acid phenylalanine which can be toxicity affects brain causes MR. can be prevented thru diet low in phenyl. first 6-9 months of life.
Huntington's Chorea
degenerative d/o of cns cause by presence of a single dominant gene. 50% chance of getting it if parent has it.