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118 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Adult Attachment (using AAI [Main et al])
1. Secure-Attachment: Value attachment; integrate both (+) and (-) experiences in childhood

2. Dismissing: devalue attachment; defensive re: childhood; idealize parents but can't give concrete examples of (+) experiences; 3/4 children are avoidant

3. Preoccupied: confused re: attach. memories; childhood = disappointment; enmenshed with Fam of Origin and angry re: problems; children = ambivalent

4. Unresolved: severe trauma or early loss; dissociate; neg and resentful of children; children = disorganized
Ainsworth's Patterns of Attachment
1. Secure: explore alone & w/mom; friendly w/stranger but prefer mom; distress when mom leaves and seeks contact when returns; mom = sensivitive and responsive

2. Anxious/Avoidant (doesn't care) - doesn't explore; no distress when mom leaves and avoids her when she returns; mom = impatient & unresponsive OR overly responsive involved & stimulating

3. Anxious/Resistant (cares too much) - anxious w/mom; distressed when leaves and ambivalent when returns; very wary w/strangers w/ & w/o mom; mom = inconsistent, st indifferent, st enthusiastic

4. Disorganized/Disoriented: alt. b/w avoidant/resistant and proximity seeking; "dazed, confused, and apprehensive"; mom = abusive
Sequence of Infant Response to Prolonged Separation from mom (15-30 months old)
Predictable sequence of bxs: (1) Protest (loud cry, restless, w/drawal)
(2) Despair (cry, inactive, w/drawal)
(3) Detachment (apathy - may even continue when mom returns
General Development of Peer Relationships
6 mos - smile, gesture, vocalize
14 mos - play & fight re: toys; display affection
preschool - prefer peers based on similarities
elementary - more time with peers than adults; grps = same gender; friends = shared activities and reciprocity
adolescence - mix gender, friends = mutual intimacy, self-disclosure, and similarites w/re: to interests, attitudes and values
Important Factors with Smoking Cessation
- Most smokers stop on their own or w/minimal professional help
- Most influential factors: (1) strong desire to quite; (2) awareness of neg consequence, (3) social support for quitting
What is the prevalence of autism?
- 2-5 cases in 10,000
- 4-5x more common in boys than girls
Most appropriate interventions with delusional patients include...
- reflect behavior respectfully
- validate feelings and CORRECT perceptions
- don't reinforce or dispute delusional system (attempt to dispute may prevent trust and rapport)
Anaclitic Depression
Syndrome in infants deprived of mom's attn for 6-8 mos; SXs = w/drawal, weepiness, insomnia, and general decline in health
The main disadvantage of abrupt termination of barbituate addiction is:

(A) mgmt of resulting depression and agitation
(B) "REM" rebound phenomena
(C) probability of seizure leading to death
(D) general physical depsress that may lead patient to resume drug use
(C) probability of seizure leading to death

FYI: A, B, & D can also occur but C is worse than the other 3 so it is the MAIN DISADVANTAGE
Factors associated with favorable prognosis for schizophrenia
- social support
- good premorbid adjustment
- acute onset
- later age of onset
- being female
- precipating events
- presence of mood disturbance
- good interepisode functioning
- minimal residual sxs
- normal neurological functioning
- fam hx of mood d/o
T/F: Development of conscience depends on the appropriate pairing of parental discipline style & child's temperament.
What is a major criticism of Kohlberg's theory of moral development (Gilligan, 1982)?
- "Male Bias" b/c based on justice and fairness (Gilligan proposes women emphasize interpersonal connectedness & care)

**Weak research since no consistent difference shown between men & women re: justice vs care AND it's shown women and men progress through the same stages of moral dev't.
What are the 3 key assumptions underlying Kohlberg's theory of moral development?
(1) Children pass thru stages in INVARIANT SEQUENCE though most ppl don't reach stages 5 & 6

(2) Moral development = outgrowth of cognitive development, though not exclusively b/c other factors contribute

(3) each stage represents an organized whole so that ppl display moral patterns across various situations
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development
Preconventional (consequences):
Stage 1: Punishment & obedience orientation
Stage 2: instrumental hedonistic orientation

Conventional (rules):
Stage 3: "good boy-good girl" orientation
Stage 4: authority and social order maintaining orientation

Post-Conventional (self-chosen principles):
Stage 5: Social contract and individual rights orientation
Stage 6: universal ethics principle orientation

- no 1:1 correlation with age, but shift from precon to convent hits around 10-13 y/o; if person reachest post-conv that hits around mid-adolescence

- relates to moral REASONING more than conduct
Piaget's Theory of Moral Development (Heteronomous vs Autonomous)
Heteronomous - "morality of constraint"; 4-7 y/o; rules = absolute; morality based on consequence; inflexible --> preoperation; egocentric and parental authority

Autonomous - "morality of reciprocity"; 7-8 y/o; rules=alterable and based on agreement; moraility based on intentions; flexibility --> decreased egocentricity, social interactions with peers, and increased adult vigilance and constraint

Heads up: DECEPTION --> 6 y/o thinks lies are things they're not supposed to say; 6-10 /o things lies are untrue statments; 11 y/o think lies are intentionl untruths. There are mixed reviews about when lying starts - Piaget says 7; others say 3-4
What influences conformity and when is it most prevalent
- Depends on age, nature of behavior in question, and individual characteristics of the teen

- more conformity when less competent view of self and low self-worth

- 12-14 y/o are the most conforming

- teens are influenced by anti- and prosocial behaviors

- Peer pressure relates to attitudes and behaviors related to peer group

Parental pressure relates to life decisions and values (good trade off)
Peer Rejection vs. Peer Neglect
Rejection - more psychological and behavioral problems; aggressive, feel lonely, problems usually cont into adulthood; more stable over settings

Neglect - social isolation; more likely to improve peer status; less likely to cont into adulthood
The most important contributes to popularity is:
A) Attractiveness
B) Physical Size
C) Maturity
D) Social behavior
(D) Social behavior

** Popular children are skillsed at inititating and maintaining (+) relat w/peers. They are outgoing, supportive, communicative, coop, and nonpunitive

FYI: popular kids tend to be more intelligent and academically successful and rejected kids tend to be aggressive disruptive, etc
Gender Differences in Peer Relations
Girls: "enabling style," express agreement, provide support, make suggestions, intimate and emotional aspects are important; "you have every right to be mad, tell me more about it."

Boys: "restrictive style," bragging, contradicing, interrupting, sharing activities and interests are important; "you won because I wasn't looking - REMATCH!"
What do you know about stranger anxiety?
- Begins 8-10 mos and peaks at 18 mos, decreasing in the 2nd year

- strong neg rxs to strangers that depends on situation factors (i.e, mom being close decreases anxiety)
Seperation Anxiety
- Starts at 6 mos, strongers at 14-18 mos; decreases in preschool years

- distress when separated from primary caregiver
Social Referencing
- Begins at 6 mos
- Infants read emotional rxs of mom and other attach't figs, esp in uncertain situations to guide bxs

Keep in mind: "Visual Cliff" example
Bowlby's Ethological Theory
- Infant and mom biologically programmed for attach't

- Infant attach't related bxs elicit moms attach't related bxs (i.e. cooing brings about mom's change in tone of voice)

- Infants develop "internal working models" in 1st yr of life

- Infants don't exhibit clear signs of attach't 'til 6-7 mos
Internal Working Model
(Bowlby) mental representations of self and attach't figs, which guide children's bx in later relationships
Freud, Harlow, Attachment...and fake monkeys
Freud - attach't from feeding b/c mom satisfies oral needs -- research says not as imp as other needs

Harlow - wire feeding and cloth monkey when scared; emphasizes imp of CONTACT COMFORT over feeding
Definition of Attachment
strong tie we feel twd others that leads us to feel pleasure and joy when together and comfort when stressed
The most significant contributor to reading disabilities originating in childhood are:
(A) visual processing deficiencies
(B) Auditory processing deficiencies
(C) phonological processing deficiencies
(D) syntactic knowledge deficiences
(C) Phonological processing deficiencies are present in most children with reading disabilities

FYI: Syntactic knowledge deficits are related to reading disabilities in adult readers
On WAIS-III, what subtests are most and least likely affected by brain impairment
Most - Digit Span, Digit Symbol Coding

Least - Information, Vocabulary
Which is a more sensitive measure of intelligence at outer extremes? Stanford-Binet or WISC-III
Risks of drug use during pregnancy
Heroin/Methadone: prematurity, low birth wt, phys malformation, respiratory disease, mortality at birth, often w/drawal sxs at birth

Marijuana and Cocaine: similar sxs, small head circ, genital and urinary tract deformations, heart defects, brain seizures, abnormalities in motor devt, irritable, difficult to console, excessively reactive to ext stim, in school, concentration and mem probs, LDs, social problems; might crawl, walk or stand early
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
SENSORIMOTOR - Birth to 2 yrs; learn through senses and movt; key achievement: object permanence, deferred imitation

PREOPERATIONAL - 2-7 yrs; more symbolic language ad substitute pretend and sociodrama play; limited by egocentrism, animism, magical thinking; unable to conserve

CONCRETE OPERATIONAL - 7-12 yrs; reversibility and decent; key achievements: conservation, transivitiy (mental sorting), hierarchical classification (sort in classes)

FORMAL OPERATIONAL - 12+ yrs; hypothetical-deductive reasoning (trial n error); propositional thought; naive theories based on abstract reasoning; imaginary audience; personal fable
Gender differences in communication
Girls - more rhetorical questions; tag question to statements, right?; talks more regarding feminine subjects; interrupt for cooperation and rapport (I KNOW!)

Boys - talk more; talk more about neutral subjects (how about them Islanders)
Code Switching
changing to another language in the middle of a conversation. "voy a la supermarket"
3 Functions of Code-Switching
(1) Person can't express self adequately in one language

(2) Sign of solidarity with a group

(3) Express attitude toward listener
Who is more at risk for developing inadequate skills in 2 languages?

(1) A child who grows up speaking both English and Spanish

(2) A child who speaks Spanish who then learns English in an "English-only" school

FYI: A child who grows up speaking two languages may even be BETTER OFF in terms of language skills than a child who grows up speaking English and then learns Spanish at an early age in school
Sequence of Language Development
1-2 mos - cooing
4-6 mos - babbling
10-16 mos - first words (mama)
12-18 mos - holophrastic speech (combine words and gestures to make sent)
18-24 mos - telegraphic speak (2-word sentences)
30-36 mos - rapid vocabulary growth (1000 words by 3 y/o)
3-6 yrs - devel complete grammatical forms
Cognitive Theories of Language Development
- Part of cognitive development

- Lang = child's desire to express meaning
Nativist Theory of Language Development
- Innate, genetically-determined factors in developing language

- Chomsky - born with Lang Acquisition Devise (LAD)

Research support: certain parts of lang = universal; brain lateralizaiton for lang; best acquired in sensitive period
Language Acquisition Devise (LAD)
- Chomsky (nativist)

- Enables children with adequate vocabulary to combine words to understand what they hear
Behavioral Theory of Language Development
- classical and operant conditioning and imitation

What mom's (& co) do:

- MOTHERESE - simple sentences, increase pitch in voice

- RECASTING - rephrase sentence in simple way
3 Key Features of Language (definition of language)
(1) system of words that stand for something

(2) rule governed

(3) w/i confines of rules can be creative
Effects of Infant Cries on Adults
- Change in heart rate, skin conductance, and physio arousal

- 1st time parents respond more strongly

- moms usually react by lifting baby to shoulder

- parents are better at disting cries
Infants Distinct Cries
(1) basic (hunger)

(2) pain

(3) anger

After 3 wks

(4) attention
4 reasons people have increased memory by the age of 7 y/o
(1) increased s-t memory capacity
(2) use of rehearsal and memory strategies consistently
(3) increased knowledge of things that are to be remembered
(4) metamemory --> knowledge of one's memory process
Infantile Amnesia
most adults can't recall memories b/f 3 y/o
Memory in Early Childhood (birth-2 y/o)
Newborns - recognize
2-3 mos - some recall with cues
2 y/o --> recall of several mos
Zone of Proximal Development

Refers to the gap b/w what child can do alone and what he/she can do w/parents/peers help (support = scaffolding)

learning occurs more rapidly when in this zone
2 Criticisms of Piaget's Research
(1) Underestimates cognitive abilities of children

(2) 50% of adults use formal operational thought w/ONLY work-related stuff & don't fully reach the formal operational stage
Propositional Thought
- Occurs in Piaget's Formal Operation stage

- ability to eval logical validity of verbal assertions w/o making ref to real-world circumstances
Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoning
- occurs in Piaget's Formal Operational Stage

- Ability to arrive at and test alt explanations for observed events
Horizontal Decalage
- Piaget

- Sequential mastery of concepts w/i single stage of devt.

- example: conservation -- numbers then length, liquid, mass etc.
Piaget's Adaptation
Building of cog schemas (organized way sof thinking about the world) through interactions w/envt; involves assimilation and accomodation
Piaget's Assimilation vs Accomodation
Assimilation - INCORPORATE NEW info about envt into existing schema

Accomodation - MODIFY CURRENT schema to account fo rnew info

Equilibrium <----equilibration---> Disequilibrium

FYI: Assimilation + Accomodation = Adaptation
Boundary disturbance is associated with...
Fritz Perl's Gestalt Tx
Style of Life is assocated with...
Understanding of maladaptive interactions is associated with...
Eric Berned (and others, I know)
Existential Tx focuses on...
the position that personality comes from the struggle b/w the ind and ult concerns re: existence (i.e., death, isolation, meaninglessness, and responsibility over our lives)
Harry Stack Sullivan believed neurotic bx is often cauesd by:

(A) Syntaxic Modes
(B) Prototaxic Modes
(C) Parataxic Modes
(D) Neo-Freudians
(C) Parataxic Modes/Distortions

FYI: Parataxic Distortion: dealing w/current acquaintances as though they were significant people from early life
Masculine Protest (Adler)
Every child experiences feelings of inferiority, which motivates growth, dominatoin, and supportiveness
According to Jung, when do people shift from extroversiveness to introversiveness
Mdipoint of life --> ~40
Freud described primary process thinking as governed by the id and functioning according to the _____ _____.
Pleasure Principle

FYI: Conscious mental process is governed by the conscious part of the ego and is termed secondary process thinking.
According to psychoanalytic theory which 3 ego defenses are most common in ppl w/OCD?
(1) Reaction formation (substituting unacceptable impulses for the opposite; i.e., rigid morals/rules)

(2) Isolation of affect - separate thoughts from feelings; OCD avoid feelings

(3) Undoing - bx symbolically negatve unacc. thoughts/actions --> OCD rituals
Underlying theory of Reality Therapy
Psychological problems come form difficulties meeting basic needs: survival, belonging/affiliation, power, fun, and freedom
A therapist who focues on a client's basic needs for power, affiliation, and fun is likely a:

(A) reality therapist
(B) Gestalt therapist
(C) transactional therapist
(D) person-centered therapist
(A) reality therapist
Which of the following terms is not associated with Minuchin's structural family therapy?

(A) enmeshment
(B) disengagement
(C) boundaries
(D) congruence
(D) Congruence

FYI: the term is associated w/Roger's client-centered therapy and refers to the genuineness of & consistance b/w a therapist's words and bxs.
True/False: The race of the client and therapist are variables that interact w/a number of client and therapist variables in exerting their effects of therapy outcomes.


client-therapist ethnic matching per se is not related to therapy outcome.
Assumptions of the Feminist Therapy Approach
MAIN ONE: Sexism and oppressive social roles underlie the reported probs of wm who seek tx.

- there is no reason a woman should be excluded from "male" social roles
- recognizes and tries to reduce the inherent power differential b/w client & therapist
- involves untrained women educating and supporting other women
Which of the following clinical tests was developed on the basis of empirical criterion keying?

(A) Rorschach
(B) 16PF
(D) MMPI-2
(D) MMPI-2
What is empirical criterion keying?
Method of choosing items for a test on the basis of the item's ability to distinguish b/w grps

Example: an item might be included on a dep inventory if dep ppl & non-dep ppl tend to respond to that item in an opposite way
From the perspective of Gestalt therapy, to what does the term introjection refer?
Boundary disturbance that involves assimilation of information, beliefs, and values w/o really understanding them.
What is the strongest indicator of suicide risk?

FYI: A number of studies (e.g, Beck's early studies of patterns of responses on the BDI) have identified hopelessness as the aspect of depressive affect associated w/the highest suicide risk
Which of the following is least descriptive of the hypnotic state? It involves:

(A) induction of a "trance state," which, in its deepest form, may be assocated w/induced vis or aud experiences
(B) a heightened state of concentration and increased receptivity to sugg of another person
(C) loss of control over one's actions from oneself to the hypnotherapist
(D) ability to recall memories that are no available to conscious mind during nonhypnotic state

Why? People under hypnosis typically report that htey never feel as though they aren't in control of their actions when in hypnotic trance
Good therapy/therapist qualities for recent Latino immigrant
- Ecclectic orientation
- informal approach
- focus on client's level of acculturation
According to psychoanalytic theory, what is the function of ego defense mechanisms?
To keep unacceptable impulses from reaching consciousness.

FYI: Anxiety results when defense mechanisms break down and fail to control "psychic excitation" which is the entry of unconscious impulses into consciousness.
Things assocated w/Jay Haley (communication theorist)
Strategic Family Therapy

- paradoxical interventions
- double-bind
- setting coalitions
True/False: early practice can affect age at which milestones are met.
Gross (GMS) & Fine (FMS) motor milestones (1-14 mos)
1 mos
- GMS: turn head when prone
- FMS: strong grasp; reflex

3 mos
- GMS: head erect when sits but bobs fwd; regards hand
- FMS: holds rattle; pulls @ clothes

5 mos
- GMS: head erect & steady; foot to moutn
- FMS: play w/toes, objects to mouth, grasp object voluntarily

7 mos
- GMS: sits leaning fwd on hands
- FMS: transfer object hand to hand

9 mos
- GMS: creeps on hands and knees, pulls to stand
- FMS: pincer grab

11-14 mos
- GMS: 11mos walks holding; 13 mos stands alone; 14 mos walk alone
- FMS: 11 mos remove object from tight enclosure; 12mos turn page of bk
Smell and babies
- Respond to unpleasant odors in the 1st days of life

- discriminates bewteen odors after 2-7 days of life
Taste and babies
- Can distinguish all 4 tastes when born

- prefers sweet tastes
Hearing and babies
- only slightly less sensitive than adults

- days old --> prefer human voice

- 3 days --> recog. mom's voice

- Newborn --> sound localization --> then leaves at 50-100 days --> then returns at 12 mos
Vision and babies
Birth - prefer faces
2-3 mos - full color vision
6 mos - some depth perception
What are the 5 major infant reflexes?
(1) Tonic Neck Reflex: extend arms when someone turns baby's neck to side

(2) Palmar Grasp: grasps finger when touched to palm of hand

(3) Babinski Reflex: extend big toe and spread little toe when foot stroked

(4) Moro - when head falls back or there's a loud noice arches back, extends legs, reaches arms as though reaching for (moral/moro!) support

(5) stepping reflex - stepping motions when held up
Brain Development in a nutshell
- Cortex least developed, but growth cont's until early adolescence

- most neurons are present @ birth

- growth mostly involves GROWTH OF NEW DENDRITES and MYELINIZATION, which are believe to be responsible for babies early rapid acquisition of skills

- mylenization mostly complete by end of 2nd yr

- by 1 yr old brain is 60% of adult weight
Process of mylenization in babies
(1) Neurons in primary motor cortex are mylenated in 1st month and lead to voluntary mov't

(2) Neurons in primary sensory area are mylenated which leads to initial processing of sensory info
Maternal Emotional Stress and Pregnancy/Developmental Issues
- Miscarry
- prematurity
- low birth wt
- respiratory probs
- irritable
- hyperactive

FYI: Risks decrease when moms use supportive social relationships
Effects of Prenatal Malnutrition on Development
- depends on when and severity
- 1st trimester --> miscarry or congenital malformaoitns
- 3rd trim --> low birth wt and low brain wt due to fewer neurons, less extensive branches of dendrites, and less mylenization

- Behavior: apathy, unresponsive to environmental stimuli, irritability, hihg-pitched cry, IQ defect, and lag in dev't
Which is not a risk factor for prematurity (<37 gestational)?

(A) overeating while pregnant
(B) teen moms
(C) drug use
(D) low SES
(E) malnutrition
Obviously (A)

Easy ones are nice, no?
HIV and newborns
- risk for transmission decreases when AXT is administered to infected mom in lsat 2 trimesters and infant in 1st 6 wks of life

- transmission = 25% chance

- can be transmitted from breast milk

- higher than avg rate for prematurity

- early sxs: susceptible to infection, failure to thrive, swollen lymph nodes, and dev't delays

- HIV+ baby --> 25% chance it'll become AIDS in first yr; 15% chance it'll result in death in the 1st year

- often developmental issuesR
Risks associated with smoking during pregnancy
- prematurity
- death in period surrounding birth
- low birth wt
- less responsive to environment
- more irritable
- lower school achievement
- short attn span
- increased motor activity in early and middle childhood
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
- sxs depend on amt of alc consumed
- sxs: growth retardation, microcephaly, hyperactivity, facial deformities, irritability, some neurological abnormalities
- most are MR (65-70 IQ)
- FAS = leading cause of MR in US
Compare germinal, embryonic, and fetal periods with respect to teratogens
GERMINAL: conception-implantation (1st 8 days); ALL OR NONE (affects few or no cells; affects a lot and kills organism)

EMBRYONIC: 2nd-8th wk; most affected; organs = very affected at different times (i.e., CNS affected from beg 3rd wk to 6th wk; heart: mid 3rd wk-6th wk)

- FETAL: 9th wk-birth; less affected but defects can arise (less severe); brain and external genetalia are most likely to be affected if anything
Name 3 things that contribute to positive outcomes for high risk babies?
(1) fewer stressors following birth

(2) easy temperament (i.e., social responsivity & consistent eating and sleeping patterns)

(3) stable support from parents or substitute caregiver
Which is NOT a family risk factor of child psychopathology?

(A) low SES
(B) large family size
(C) paternal psychopathology
(D) severe marital discord
(E) parental criminality
(F) maternal psychopathology
(G) placement of child outside home
(C) paternal psychopathology
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model (btw, he changed it from Ecological from Bioecological in the 90s, but for some reason people don't pay attention to this????)
In order from closest to the developing person to furthest:

MICROsystem: family, daycare
MESOsystem: interconnectsion b/w settings (i.e., crisis in family causes child to disrupt daycare)
EXOsystem: not in contact, but changes affect the person
MACROsystem: culture and subcultures
Klinefelter's Syndrome
- Caused by chromosomal abnormalities that involve sex choromosomes

- In men --> XXY

- Masculine intererests in children --> dev'p normal male identity BUT show incomplete dev't of 2ndary sex characteristics and are often sterile
Fragile X Syndrome
- caused by chromosomal abnormalities that involve sex chromosomes
- in women and men weak site on the X
- neg effects more evident in men
- characterized by a unique constellation of physical, intellectual, and behavioral deficits including moderate to severe MR, facial deformities, and a rapid, staccato speech rhythm
Turner's syndrome
- Caused by chromosomal abnormalities that involve sex chromosomes
- In women, part of X chromosome is missing
- Do not develop 2ndary sex characterisitcs and sterile; short stature, stubby fingers; and a webbed neck
What health conditoins are common in children w/Down Syndrome
- heart abnormalities
- thyroid dysfunction
- malformatoins of the intestinal tract
- susceptibility to respiratory infections
Down Syndrome
- Extra 21 choromosome
- 1/800 live births
- odds increase w/age of mom (1/1900 in 20-24 y/o VS. 1/30 in 45+ y/o)
- mod-profound MR
- phys characteristics: short stocky build, flattended face, protruding tongue, and almond-shaped eyes
Which of the following is not a disorder due to 2 recessive genes?

(B) Tay-Sach's Disease
(C) Huntington's Chorea
(D) Skickle-Cell anemia
(E) Cystic Fibrosis
(C) Huntington Chorea --> degenerative disease of CNS due to SINGLE DOMINANT GENE (50% chance of inheriting if 1 parent has it)
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
-Disorder due to presence of 2 recessive genes where person lacks enzyme needed to digest amino acid phenylalanine.

When phenylalanine is not digested --> toxic --> retardation

If adhere to low phenylaline diet for 1st 6-9 yrs of life can prevent retardation due to PKU
Sex-linked characteristics
Recessive characteristics that are carried only X or, less commonly, Y chromosome.

FYI: Men have greater chance of inheriting b/c if X carries characteristic, it won't be cx'd out by dominant X (like it would in a woman)
_______ of _________ chromosome pairs are homologous and known as autosomes
22 of 23

FYI: The 23rd pair are the sex choromosomes (X & Y)
True/False: Most characteristics are polygenic, meaning they are determined by multiple genese rather than a single pair
Heritability Index
- Statistic indicating degree to which a trait can be attributed to genetic factors.

- Usually comes from kindship studies comparing different family members (esp. twin studies)
Secular Trends (definition)
Differences in timing of physical changes that are found in children belonging to different cohors (i.e., menarche)
Which is the least canalized developmental skill?

(A) IQ - intelligence
(B) sensorimotor development
(C) personality
(A) Sensorimotor development
- Narrow developmental path where characteristics are resistant to environmental forces
Maturation (developmental)
- genetically-determined patterns of bx; environment has little to no impact

- Environment may impact WHEN the bxs arise, but env't will not affect the SEQUENCE

EX: to walk: pull to standing position --> walk while holding furniture --> stand alone --> walk alone
Critical Period vs. Sensitive Period
Critical: LIMITED TIME SPAN where biologically prepared to gain skill/bx if REQUIRED env't stim is present (more common in ANIMALS)

Sensitive: OPTIMAL time for bx/skill to develop, but it CAN DEVELOP LATER (more used with HUMANS
Reaction range
Each person is genetically predisposed with lower and upper boundaries for developing a certain train. Env't determines where the range a person falls. Higher upper boundary usually has bigger range
Genotype vs Phenotype
Genotype: characteristics determeined by genes (Bb vs BB vs bb)

Phenotype: observable, measurable traints, can be result of interactoin between genetics and env't (i.e., height, eye color, personality)
Educational programs for high-risk children are an example of __________ prevention.

FYI: Primary prevention is administered before onset of problems and is designed to prevent its development
Which age group as the greatest increase of suicide rate?
15-24 years old
What is a culturally encapsulated therapist (Wrenn)?
Defines world in terms of his/her own cultural beliefs
Emic vs Etic
Emic (Meeter) - view culture from inside, trying to see as members do

Etic (Teacher) - look at culture from outside using universally accepted means of investigation
Remoralization, remediation, and rehabilitation are descriptions of _________.
Three phases of tx outcome according to Howard

Remoralizatoin: 1st few sessions
Remediation: 16 sessions --> sx relieve
Rehabilitation: gradual improvement in various aspects of functioning
Most of the variance in treatment outcome is accounted for by ___________.
The working alliance.