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29 Cards in this Set

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cytosine
What is this molecule?
5-methyl cytosine
What is this molecule?
What is the enzyme that methylates cytosine?
DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferase
DNA sequence that binds proteions that prevent enhancers from activating an adjacent promoter
insulator
About ___ base pairs of DNA encircle each histone octamer
140
This stabilizes the solenoidal chromatin structure
Histone H1
Each histone octamer consists of ___ molecules each of histones ___, ___, __, & __
two, H2A, H2B, H3, H4
cap sequence
transcription initiation site
ATG (AUG in the mRNA)
translation initiation site
the leader sequence
5' untranslated region (5' UTR)
TAA
translation termination codon
this sequences contains includes the sequence AATAAA
3' untranslated region (3' UTR)
The AATAAA sequence is needed for
polyadenylation
the poly(A) tail does (3):
1) consfers stability 2) allows mRNA to exit nucleus 3) permits translation
the poly(A) tail is inserted about __ bases downstream of the AAUAAA seq
20
The ____ box is usually about __ bp upstream from site of first base transcription
TATA, 30
RNA polymerases require _____________ _______ to bind efficiently to the promoter
transcription factors
Basal transcription factors
TFII(A,B,C,D,E,F,H)
TBP
TATA-binding proteion
TAFs
TBP-associated factors
Basal transcription factor sequence
D to TATA, A stabilizes D, B+H join D-A complex, E+F join RNA polymerase II
CTD
carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II
_____ positions RNA polymerase II
TFIIB
DNA P II's CTD is bound by
TFIID
Transcription starts when the ___ is phosphorylated by _____ and released.
CTD, TFIIH
DNA sequence that can activate the utilization of a promoter and control its efficiency and rate of transcription
enhancer
This gene is required for the development of the normal eye and is highly conserved
PAX6
Homozygous PAX6 mutations are
lethal
DNA regulatory elements that actively repress the transcription of a particular gene.
silencers