Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A small, single–stranded RNA molecule that binds to a complementary sequence in mRNA molecules and directs associated proteins to degrade or prevent translation of the target mRNA.
miRNA (microRNA)
The simplest kind of transposable element, consisting of inverted repeats of DNA flanking a gene for transposase, the enzyme that catalyzes transposition
insertion sequence
In prokaryotic DNA, a sequence of nucleotides near the start of an operon to which an active repressor can attach. The binding of the repressor prevents RNA polymerase from attaching to the promoter and transcribing the genes of the operon.
A specific small molecule that inactivates the repressor in an operon.
Dense region of DNA in prokaryote
Completed assembly of transcription factors and RNA polymerase bound to the promoter
Transcription initiation complex
A type of regulation at the RNA–processing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript, depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns.
Alternative RNA splicing
A complex assembly that interacts with the ends of an RNA intron in splicing RNA, releasing the intron and joining the two adjacent exons.`
A stretch of amino acids on a polypeptide that targets the protein to a specific destination in a eukaryotic cell.
signal peptide
A protein–RNA complex that recognizes a signal peptide as it emerges from the ribosome.
enzyme that joins each A.A. to the correct tRNA
aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
promoter DNA sequence crucial in forming the transcription initiation complex
The progressive restriction of developmental potential, causing the possible fate of each cell to become more limited as the embryo develops
A substance, such as Bicoid protein, that provides positional information in the form of a concentration gradient along an embryonic axis.
Plant homeotic genes that use positional information to determine which emerging leaves develop into which types of floral organs.
organ identity genes
A gene of the embryo that directs the actual formation of segments after the embryo′s axes are defined.
segmentation gene
Any of the genes that control the overall body plan of animals and plants by controlling the developmental fate of groups of cells.
homeotic gene
A mutation with a phenotype leading to death at the embryo or larval stage.
embryonic lethal
Describing a stem cell, from an embryo or adult organism, that can give rise to multiple but not all differentiated cell types
The ordering of cells into specific three–dimensional structures, an essential part of shaping an organism and its individual parts during development.
pattern formation
The maternal substances in the egg that influence the course of early development by regulating the expression of genes that affect the developmental fate of cells.
cytoplasmic determinants
Signals to which genes regulating development respond, indicating a cell’s location relative to other cells in an embryonic structure.
positional information
The ability of one group of embryonic cells to influence the development of another