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70 Cards in this Set

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Natural Selection
A process whereby those individuals best suited to the characteristics of the immediate environment are most likely to survive and reproduce.
Fitness
(1) The genetic contribution of an individual to the next generation's gene pool relative to the average for the population, usually measured by the number of that individual's offspring or close kin that survive to reproductive age. (2) Patterns of activity or inactivity, endurance or frailty, and illness or health that influence the ability to manage tasks of independent daily living.
Ecological Niche
The position or function of an organism in a community of plants and animals.
Inclusive Fitness
The fitness of an individual organism as measured by the survival and reproductive success of its kin, each relative being valued according to the probability of shared genetic information, an offspring or sibling having a value of 50% and a first cousin 25%.
Ethology
The comparative investigation of the biological basis of behavior from an evolutionary perspective, to determine the proximal causes of behavioral acts, the relative contribution of inheritance and learning to these acts, and the adaptive significance and evolutionary history of different patterns of behavior within and across species.
Evolutionary Psychology
The study of the long-term, historical origins of behavior.
Psychosocial Evolution
The contribution of each generation to the knowledge and norms of society.
Cognitive Unconscious
The range of mental structures and processes that operate outside awareness but play a significant role in conscious thought and action.
Id
In psychoanalytic theory, the mental structure that expresses impulses and wishes. Much of the content of the id is unconscious.
Ego
In psychosexual theory, the mental structure that experiences and interprets reality. The ego includes most cognitive capacities, including perception, memory, reasoning, and problem solving.
Superego
In psychoanalytic theory, the mental function that embodies moral precepts and moral sanctions. The superego includes the ego ideal, or the goals toward which one strives, as well as the punishing conscience.
Defense Mechanisms
A technique, usually unconscious, that attempts to alleviate the anxiety caused by the conflicting desires of the id and the superego in relation to impulses (e.g., repression, denial, projection).
Relational Paradigm
In contemporary psychoanalytic theory, the view that humans have basic needs for connection, contact, and meaningful interpersonal relationships, and that the self is formed in an interpersonal context and emerges through interactions with others. Maturity requires the achievement of a sense of vitality, stability, and inner cohesiveness formulated through interpersonal transactions. Psychopathology or dysfunction arise when a person internalizes rigid, rejecting, or neglectful relational experiences and then uses these internalizations to anticipate or respond to real-life social encounters.
Cognition
The capacity for knowing, organizing perceptions, and problem solving.
Equilibrium
Efforts to reconcile new perspectives and ideas about basic moral concepts, such as justice, intentionality, and social responsibility, with one's existing views about what is right and wrong when a stage change occurs.
Adaptation
(1) In evolutionary theory, the total process of change in response to environmental conditions. (2) In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, a process of gradually modifying existing schemes and operations in order to take into account changes or discrepancies between what is known and what is being experienced.
Assimilation
In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, the process of incorporating objects or events into existing schemes.
Accommodation
(1) In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, the process of changing existing schemes in order to account for novel elements in the object or the event. (2) In vision, changes in the curvature of the lens in response to the distance of the stimulus.
Sensorimotor Intelligence
In Piaget's theory of development, the first stage of cognitive growth, during which schemes are built on sensory and motor experiences.
Preoperational Thought
In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, the stage in which representational skills are acquired.
Concrete Operational Thought
In Piaget's theory, a stage of cognitive development in which rules of logic can be applied to observable or manipulable physical relations.
Formal Operational Thought
In Piaget's theory, the final stage of cognitive development, characterized by reasoning, hypothesis generation, and hypothesis testing.
Metacognition
Thinking about one's own thinking, including what individuals understand about their reasoning capacities and about how information is organized, how knowledge develops, how reality is distinguished from belief or opinion, how to achieve a sense of certainty about what is knnown, and how to improve understanding.
Zone of Proximal Development
The emergent developmental capacity that is just ahead of the level at which the person is currently functioning.
Classical Conditioning
A form of learning in which a formerly neutral stimulus that evokes a specific reflexive response. After repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus elicits a response similar to the reflexive response.
Operant Conditioning
A form of learning in which new responses are strengthened by the presentation of reinforcements.
Reinforcement
In operant conditioning, the application of any stimulus that makes the repetition of a response more likely.
Positive Reinforcers
In operant conditioning, a stimulus-such as food or a smile-that increases the rate of response when present.
Negative Reinforcers
In operant conditioning, a stimulus-such as an electric shock-that increases the rate of response when removed.
Schedules of Reinforcement
The frequency and regularity with which reinforcements are given.
Continuous Reinforcement
In operant conditioning, the schedule in which reinforcement is given on every learning trial.
Extinction
(1) In psychosocial theory, the negative pole of the psychosocial crisis of very old age, in which it is feared that the end of one's life is the end of all continuity. (2) In operant conditioning, a process in which an expected reinforcement no longer occurs following the behavior. Eventually, the behavior is no longer emitted.
Intermittent Reinforcement
A schedule of reinforcement that varies the amount of time or the number of trials between reinforcements.
Punishment
(1) A penalty or negative experience imposed on a person for improper behavior. (2) In operant conditioning, a negative stimulus applied in order to decrease the expression of an undesirable response. Compare negative reinforcer.
Social Learning Theory
A theory of learning that emphasizes the ability to learn new responses through observation and imitation of others.
Vicarious Reinforcement
Through observing others, a person can learn a behavior and also acquire the motivation to perrform the behavior or resist performing that behavior depending on what is observed about the consequences of that behavior.
Social Cognition
Concepts related to understanding interpersonal behavior and the point of view of others.
Efficacy
The capacity for producing a desired result, including planning intentional actions, guiding and directing one's own behaviors toward a goal, and reflecting on one's actions to assess their quality, impact, and purpose.
Cognitive Map
An internal mental representation of the environment.
Encodings
In cognitive behaviorism, the constructs that a person has about the self, the situation, and others in the situation.
Expectancies
Expectations about one's ability to perform, the consequences of one's behavior, and the meaning of events in one's environment.
Affects
Emotion, feeling, or mood.
Goals
The result or achievement toward which effort is directed.
Values
A principle or quality that is intrinisically desirable.
Cognitive Competencies
A person's knowledge, skills, and abilities.
Self-Regulatory Plans
A strategy for achieving one's goals, including techniques for managing internal emotional states, creating a plan, and putting the plan into action.
Physical Culture
Encompasses the objects, technologies, structures, tools, and other artifacts of a culture.
Social Culture
Encompasses the norms, roles, beliefs, values, rites, and customs of a culture.
Worldview
A way of making meaning of the relationships, situations, and objects encountered in daily life in a culture.
Cultural Determinism
The theoretical concept that culture shapes individual experience.
Enculturation
The process by which culture carriers teach, model, reward, punish, and use other symbolic strategies to transmit critical practices and values.
Continuity
A condition that characterizes a culture when a child is given information and responsibilities that apply directly to his or her adult behavior.
Discontinuity
A condition that characterizes a culture when a child is either barred from acitivities that are open only to adults or forced to unlearn information or behaviors that are accepted in children but considered inappropriate for adults.
Collectivism
Worldview in which social behavior is guided largely by the shared goals of a family, tribe, work group, or other collective.
Individualism
Worldview in which social behavior is guided largely by personal goals, ambitions, and pleasures.
Ethnic Groups
A group of people who share a common cultural ancestry, language, or religion within a larger cultural context.
Social Role
A set of behaviors that have some socially agreed-upon functions and for which there exists an accepted code of norms, such as the role of teacher, child, or minister.
Social Identity
The aspect of the self-concept that is based on membership in a group or groups and the importance and emotional salience of that membership.
Open Systems
A structure that maintains its organization even though its parts constantly change.
Adaptive Self-Regulation
Adjustments made by an operating system in which feedback mechanisms identify and respond to environmental changes in order to maintain and enhance the functioning of the system.
Feedback Mechanisms
In systems theory, the operations in an open system that produce adaptive self-regulation by identifying and responding to changes in the environment.
Adaptive Self-Organization
The process by which an open system retains its essential identity when confronted with new and constant environmental conditions. It creates new substructures, revises the relationships among components, and establishes new, higher levels of organization that coordinate existing substructures.
Microsystem
A pattern of activities, roles, and interpersonal relations experienced by the developing person in a given setting with specific physical and material characteristics.
Mesosystem
The interrelations among two or more settings in which the developing person actively participates (e.g., for a child, the relations between home, school, and neighborhood peer groups; for an adult, between family, work, and social life).
Exosystem
One or more settings that do not involve the developing person as an active participant but in which events occur that affect or are affected by what happens in the setting containing the developing person.
Macrosystem
Refers to consistencies in the form and content of lower order systems (micro-, meso-, and exosystems) that exist or couls exist at the level of the subculture or the culture as a whole, along with any belief systems of ideology underlying such consistencies.
Chronosystem
In Bronfenbrenner's theory, this is the temporal dimension: Individiduals, the systems in which they are embedded, and resources all may change over time.
Boundaries
In family systems theory, what determines who is considered to be a family member and who is an outsider. They influence the way information, support, and validation of the family unit are sought and the way new members are admitted into the family.
Rules
Principle or regulation governing conduct, action, procedure, or ritual.
Interdependence
A condition in which systems depend on each other, or in which all the elements in a system rely on one another for their continued growth.