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36 Cards in this Set

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Positivism
An approach to the study of human behavior that seeks causal relationships among factors, with the goal of trying to predict outcomes.
Qualitive Inquiry
An approach to the study of human behavior that tries to understand the meanings, motives, and beliefs underlying a person's actions.
Operationalize
To translate and abstract concept into something that can be observed and measured.
Objective
Based on facts and not influenced by personal feelings, interpretations, or prejudices.
Repeatable
In research, it is important that others carry out a similar investigation and observe the same results as the original investigator. For this to occur, the original investigator must carefully define all the procedures and equipment used, describe all the essential characteristics of the participants (such as age, sex, and social class background), and describe the setting or situation where the observations were made.
Systematic
In a careful, orderly way. Scientists have a framework of questions that they strive to answer based on what is already known and what theories predict. They approach research by having clear objectives, carefully defining the purpose of their work, and describing the specific methods they will use.
Statistically Significant
Pertaining to observations that are unlikely to occur by chance and that therefore indicate a systematic cause.
Sampling
A method of choosing participants in a study.
Population
All units for potential observation.
Generalizability
The extent to which we can say with confidence that the observations made for a sample would apply to other groups.
Random Sampling
A method for choosing the sample for a study in which each member of the population under investigation has an equal chance of being included.
Stratified Sampling
A method for choosing the sample ofr a research study in which participants are selected from a variety of levels or types of people in the population.
Matched Groups Sampling
Two or more groups of participants who are similar on many dimensions are selected as the sample for an experiment. The effects of different treatments or manipulations are determined by comparing the behavior of these groups.
Clinical Sample
Populations who are or have been treated for a problem, or who are wating to be treated.
Observation
A research method in which behavior is watched and recorded.
Participant Observation
Observation in which the researchers actively engages in interactions with other members of the setting.
Correlation
A measure of the strength and direction of the relaionship among variables.
Interobserver Reliability
Two or more observers' codings of the same situation are compared to determine whether different observers rated the same event in the same way.
Rapport
Conveying a feeling of trustpworthiness and acceptance in an interview or in a counseling setting.
Self-presentation Bias
Research participants may present themselves in the way they want the interviewer to see them.
Reliability
The consistency of a test in measuring something.
Validity
The extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure.
Experiment
A research method best suited for examining causal relationships, in which some variable or group of variables is systematically manipulated to examine its effect on an outcome.
Independent Variable
The factor that is manipulated in an experiment, and the measured effects of the manipulation.
Dependent Variable
A factor that is defined by a participant's responses or reactions and that may or may not be affected by the experimenter's manipulation of the independent variable.
Experimental Group
The participants who experience the manipulation or treatment in an experiment.
Control Group
The participants in an experiment who do not experience the manipulation or treatment and whose responses or reactions are compared with those of participants who are treated actively to determine the effects of the manipulation.
Quasi-Experimental Study
A study in which the assignment of participants to treatment was not controlled by the experimenter but was a reult of some pattern of life events.
Internal Validity
The meaningfulness of an experiment.
External Validity
The degree to which the results of an experiment are applicable to situations beyond the experiment itself.
Retrospective Study
Research that asks the participants to report on experiences from an earlier time in their lives.
Cross-Sectional Studies
A research design in which the behavior of individuals of different ages, social backgrounds, or environmental settings is measured once to acquire information about the effects of these differences.
Longitudinal Study
A research design in which repeated observations of the same participants are made at different times, in order to examine change over time.
Cohort Sequential Design Study
A research design that combines cross-sectional and longitudinal methods. Cohorts consist of participants ina certain age group. Different cohorts are studied at different times. New cohorts of younger groups are added in successive data collections to replace those who have grown older. This design allows the analysis of age differences, changes over time, and the effects of social and historical factors.
Peer Review
The process in which other professionals read and critically evaluate a researcher's materials before they are published.
Ethics
Principles of conduct founded on a society's moral code.