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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
describe the breast as a modified tissue
is a modified area of skin with speciliased sweat glands
capable of producing nutritional secretions under hormonal influence
what forms from the downgrowth of skin when forming breast tissue?
epithelial pit and then a lactiferous duct
what is the milk line
a line down the body where accessory nipples may develop
what 2 cells are found in the epidermis?
keratocytes - produce keratin
melanocytes: produce melanin
what could a downgrowth of skin turn into?
sweat gland
hair follicle
sebacious gland
apocrine gland
which type of gland is modified to make breast tisuse
sweat gland
why is the skin colour of the nipple important?
a baby can recognise the nipple
describe a typical sweat gland
lumen with cells lining it
mypoepithelial cells around the outside
what is the difference between a sweat gland and a lactiferous duct
lactiferous duct is stratified columnar cells
also has myoepithelial cells around it
describe the anatomy of the breast`
2nd - 6th ribs
over pec major
12 - 20 lobes, with lobules
each lobe has lactiferous duct which opens into a ring
septa between lobes
what separates the lobes of a breast?
septa
how are septa attached to the skin?
Coopers suspensory ligaments
fibrocollagenous bands
what is a mammary duct?
an extralobular duct coming from a lactiferous dinus
describe, from out to in, the different ducts of the breasts
lactiferous duct, lactiferous sinus/ampulla, mamaary duct (extralobular duct), terminal intralobular duct, terminal ductule
which ducts transform into alveoli during and when do they do this?
terminal ductules
at pregnancy
describe the areola
an area of pigmentation
sebacious glands
raised area
pressure receptors
what surrounds lactiferous ducts / sinuses?
muscle bundles
how many lobes in a breast?
12 - 20
describe breast tissue in an infant / neonate?
simple ductal system
no alveoli
similar in males and females
develops ductal system in 3rd trimester
describe breast tissue in puberty
influence of oestrogen and progesteorne
increase in fat and collagenous tisuse
branching of ductal system
what happens to fetal breast tissue?
subject to high hormone levels
grows and retracts
may influence risk of breats cancer
what is resting breast tissue?
breast tissue between babies or at menopause
what are the cyclic changes a womann may experience in brast tissue?
increase in size and tenderness premenstrually
do males get a ductal system?
yes
what is found in the lumen of an adult breast?
keratin plug
what does the lactiferous duct usualyl contain?
proteinacious sercretion and cellular debris
what is the role of progesterone in pregnancy?
maintains endothelium
prevents ovulation
stimulates breast development
inhibits immune rejection of embryo
what is the role of estrogens in pregnancy
relaxation of pubis symphysis
proliferation of breast
role in partuirition - E/P ratio
descrive breast tissue in pregnancy?
switch from ductule to alveolar system
secretion distends alveolar lumen
oestrogen, progesterone and prolacting all affect tissue
vacuoles and fat droplets form
increase in vascularity
increasing lipid rich protein secretions - not true milk
what is the difference between alveoli and terminal ductules?
lumen distended iwth secretion
more complex and branched
secretory
in osmium tetraoxide, what colour is protein?
pink
in osmium tetraoxide, what colour is fat?
black
how is fat synthesized and secreted?
by SER
passes in membrane bound droplets
pinched off, released into lumen as droplet
how is protein released?
exocytosis - as free protein
which receptors must be activated for milk secretion to occur?
prolacting
what are the characteristics of resting breast
alveoli still distinguisable
evidence of atrophy
hypoxia of alveoli has caused involution - return to ductal system
what hormone level change causes lactation to occur?
drop in oestrogen and progesterone
what happens to alveoli when they begin to lactate?
become enlarged
describe the suckling reflex?
baby orders next meal when suckling
stimulates ant. pituitary to release prolacting
acts on cells to increase milk production
what is the milk ejection reflex?
let down reflex
suckling stimulates oxytocin production from hypothalamu and release from pituitary
stimulate muscle contraction - peristalsis
what stimulates the milk ejection reflex?
sucking
when lactation established, can be just baby's cry
what is the MER turned down by?
anxiety / stress
describe colustrum
breast milk in 1st week
high protein content
high IgG content
high levels of fat soluble vitamins
describe transitional millk
2nd and 3rd week
higher calories
less IgG
fat and protein
lactose
water soluble vitamins
describe mature milke
high water, fat and carbohydrate
lactose
vitamins A and D
what is lactose important for?
encourages lactobacillus - decrease pathogenic bacteria
galactose: for myelin sheath
what imunoglobulins are in breast milk?
secretory IgA (most)
IgG
what is the immunological advantage of breast feeing?
protection agains otitis media, sepsis, meningitis, Gi and respiratory infections, allergies
secretory IgA: antiviral, antibiotic, antigenic inhibition
what are the functions of IgA
antiviral
antibiotic
antigenic inhibition
what is nutrient sensing?
when baby senses nutrional environment
affects metabolic programming
mismatch can cause CV risk
what are the three main advantages of breast feeding?
immunological
nutrient sensing
psychosocial
describe disadvantages of breast feeding?
1) drugs and alcohol passed on
2) diseases eg AIDS
3) jaundice from breast milk
4) mothers aversion / physical / mental state
describe post partuiritional behaviour?
social, clingy, need for contact, warmth, comfort and food
what is weaning behaviour
gradual gain of independance
what is gestational preparatory behaviour:
nesting