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91 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Sociological obstacles to studying relationships
societal taboos--the things that are historically looked down upon nd societal changes: marrying later, higher divorce rate
methodological obstacles to studying relationships
selction bias: who participates in research, who is available-gender a big example, women are more likely to be open abotu talking about relationships
terminological obstacles to studying relationships
descriptors of relationships are common in "lay language", descriptors of relationships are vague ad subjective, high likelihood of misinterpretation
subjective definition of closeness
asking someone how close they feel to so and so..including the self in the definition, but what does close mean to the participant?
inclusion of positive sentiment
generally, you dont feel close to somebody you don't feel good about, but close relationships can include both positive and negative affect
behavioral interdependence
BEST predictor of length of romantic relationship
interdependence =
interaction + influence
indicators of interdependence
frequency of interaction
diversity of situations in which influence and interact
strength of influence, duration
how can you classify relationships
by relation, by affective tone and by developmental task/domain
what does it mean to classify by domains
different domains, different tasks, different relationships fufill different needs
domains of relationships
attachment, coalitional group, hierarchical power, reciprocity, mating
attachment
maintaining safety, receiving care
coalitional group
affiliation, hostility toward outsiders, adherence to social rules
hierarchical power
negotiation of benefits, avoidance of consequences
reciprocity
give and take between equals
mating
selection and reention of sexual partner, reproduction
what are the 3 dimensions that bukowski outlines
permanence, gender and power
what does book say are neglected relationships
friend relationships (people use friend in many different ways, calling everyone a good friend, no legal basis for friendship,)
relationships with non humans (non human, so how can be close?)
relationships with God--researchers can overlook the role religion plays in someone's life,
what is a relationship
multiple interactions over time...each person affects and is affected by the other person
functions of relationships
rearing and social functioning, need to belong, relationships affecting health

attachment, reliable alliance, enhancement of worth, social integration, guidance, opportunity for nuturance
can relationships exist without interaction
relationships w/ people that you once interacted with, and relationships that are expected by society--family you dont speak to
how do we describe differences in relationships?
structure, psychological dynamics, properties and provisions
what are some cultural differences we see
more or less permanence, stability, power and dominance, gender composition--shaped by gender based attributes
exchange dynamics
relationship behaviors determined by balance of cost and benefits
communal dynamics
obligation to be responsive to othere's needs
what ways do we study relationships
social learning theory, social exchange, equity theory and interdependence
social learning theory
observe, learn and model
social exchange
all senstive to rewards and costs
equity theory
in YOUR eyes, is this relationship fair
interdependence
what benefits both?
sociometric peer status assessment
procedure for assessing the degree to which children are liked or accepted by peers
observational methodologies
adds a 3rd perspective, can see casual links, see if behaviors affect each other
lab vs. natural: can provoke in lab, but may adjust behavior if know being watched
natural quasi experiment
capitalize on something that already occurs (abuse studies)
cross sectional design
different age groups together...to see changes
sequential design
get two groups today, compare them in the future
microgenetic desi
follow group that's right on the onset of a developmental change (puberty)
case studies
one individual
strength: many sources of data
limitations: more subjective, cannot generalize
ethnography
living amongst another culture
strength: rich picture of culture
limitation: more subjective, cannot generalize
culture
learned behaviors, beliefts, attitudes and customs of a specific group of population, shared and persist over time
individualist culture
emotional detach, personal goals, behavior regulated by attitude and cost benefit, confrentation ok
collectivist society
self defined in group terms, behave regulated by group norms, heirarchy and harmony, homogeneous, strong in group-out group distinctions
cultures differ by
in content and process--what is provided and who gives it
actual dynamics, and meaning are often different---interactions different
cultures same
sense of belonging
interaction
behavioral exchange of any length
relationship dimensions--what do relationships contain
reciprocity, quality (degree of mutually positive experiences), patterns (relation between/relative frequency of actions), beliefs/expectations, commitment, intimacy (mutual self disclosure and affection), diversity (variety of experiences and situations)
interdependence correlated with
emotional tone and subjective closeness
structural commitment
staying together based on role obligations
personal commitment
staying together out of caring, love, desire
are relationships a need?
form relationships easily, show distress at the end of a relatioships, show psoitive emotions when belongingness increases, substitute new relationships for unfulfilling ones
basic emotions
joy, happy, fear, anger, surprise, sadness, disgust--considered to be innate and adaptive, occur unconsciously, not blended, seen in infants---but which emotions are basic are widely disputed
emotion display rules
understanding of contexts in which it is or isnt appropriate to express certain kinds of emotions--stimulation, inhibition, intesification (seem higher), deintensification (acting cool), masking (feeling one, showing another)
evidence that supports universal emotions
basic emotions reflect evolutionary history--see these emotions across species in similar situations, emotional expression is consisten across cultures, even sometimes across species, and attributions of emotions to particular expressions
evidence that emotions are NOT universal
emotional display rules have considerable variation---based on cultural differences and social context-if people are around or not, where you are, etc, based on developmental history and social/reltaionship context, experience dependent proceseses--we have many in development, we have to learn in order to develop, we need the expreriences
why are more intense emotions felt in close relationships
partners are more dependent on each other in more activiteis and domains, close relationships includ more expectancies about behavior than superficial relationships
how are violations of expectancies dealt with
violated expectations produce arousal, events are interpreted in terms of effects: does it facilitate or interfere with own goals or welfare
how does emotion regulation develop from dyadic to individual
infancy--adult regulates emotions--responds to cry, soothes, react based on problem
early and middle childhood: co regulation: talking things out, helping them control body, voices
adolescence: self regulation with interdependenc---acheive autonomy, but keep ties to parents
why are typology views of parenting limited
because parenting isn't somethign you do to or for children, it's something you do with children--reciprocity---it simply classifies
compiance play study
found that the highest level of compliance was in the responsive condition, whre mothers were trained to be responsive to child's needs
warmth
adds significatly to predictions of child characteristics such as self esteem and instrumental competence, BUT, whether it does and how much depends on other aspects of parenting---demandingness and responsiveness
moderators of conflict in parent child relationships
child age: affect frequency, more intense in early and mid adolescense than middle childhood
pubertal timing: conflict greater when purbety is early than on time or late
moderators of conflict in sibling relatinoships
parent child relationships: parents hostile, coercive behavior towards children predicts their hostile, coercive behavior towards siblings
differential treatment by parents (perceived or actual), gender: same sex have higher conflict early, reverses over time
marital conflict spillover affect kids
exposure to conflict, disruptions in parenting, emotional arousal on all parts interferes with positive interactions--much worse than divorce
james lange theory of emotions
linear sequencing! perceived event, arousal, emotional experience (event, cognition, interpretation)--though these events may often occurr simultaneously
schacter theory of emotions
two component processing: perceived event, arousal/cognitive interpretation (physiological and brain working simultaneously), emotional experience
unconstructive marital conflict strategies
demand-withdrawl, mutual avoidance, cross complaint, demand comply
unconstructive strategies associated with
dissatisfaction, divorce, physical violence, poor outcomes for children
cross compliant
reciprocal demands for change, criticisms, complaints, accusations, attacks engage/engage
demand-withdraw
partner 1 demands change, partner 2 withdraws to preserve status quo, engage/disengage,
demand comply
partner 1 demands change, partner 2 complies to short circuit conflict engage/disengage
mutual avoidance
both partners skirt around topic, change the subject, and avoid conflict disengage/disengage
mood congruence
tend to recall or evaluate events in ways that match current mood, and to recall eents in congruence with mood at the time the memory was encoded
affect infusion model
effects are strongest when faed with complex situations
current mood more likely to affect appraisal of serious, as opposed to simple, relatioships problems
expectancies
beliefs we hold about probable behavior of people and ocurrance of future events
how do expectancies develop
multiple sources--including individual experience and social norms
what are the four dimensions
certainty ( how likely to ocurr--subjective), accessibility (how quickly comes to mind), importance ( how relevant to needs, motives and values), explicitness (how much conscious awareness--often, it's not much)
infants and expectancies
preverbal infants develop expectancies in early interactions, they expect active interaction and contingent--can discriminate different social partners
consious access of expectancies
often not much--even as adults, we have little access to high order cognitive processes--problem for self reports
self oriented memories and their affect on relationships
egocentric bias--overestimate contribution to relationship , view more positively, give partner responsibility for negative events...autobio memories--our memories are often inaccurate
co-construction of memories
transactive memories--communal memory bank
narrative socialization in paret child dyads--1st, parten provides content and structure, then structure only, then child goes solo @ age 3
joint attention
coordinated awreness of the same object, even, etc. necessary precursor to theory of mind!
why are joint attention and theory of mind so important to relationshisp
because you need to understand someone else's prespective, hold attentino on more than one thing--responding---following someone's gaze, initiating behavior regulation (getting someone's attention), initiating joint anntention---share experience with another
attributions
explanations of others' underlying intentinos, dispositions and stable characteristics--used to predict and understand others behaviors
attributional biases
when get misinterpreted in figuring out another's intentions--usually happens in ambiguous situations, considered in context of social info processing--usually sequential steps
attachment and love bio bases
oxytocin--aka the cuddle hormone--stimulates contractions, implicated in pair bonding, positive feelings towards others, interpersonal trust, don't see these effects in animals w/o oxytocin receptors
spearation and deprivations bio bases
lower serotonin, stress response dysregulation
social cognition
how we process social info, how we structure and organize it, how access to predict future behavior
social info processing
understanding and interpretation of situation determines beahivor outcomes
integrates past experiences w/ current input to produce reaction
most models include both sequential and co ocurring processes
automatic processing
jump to conclusions based on past associations
stable, slowly built, based on repeated/detected regularities in environmen
basis of casual associations
controlled processing
consious decision making and problem solving
explicit, easy to recall, vulnerable to short circuit by automatic,
ability to use depends on cognitive load
relationship schema
conitive structure represents regularities in patterns of interpersonal relatedness
3 elements:
slef schema: how you think about yourself
person schema: who other person is
interaction script: general patterns of what you actually do--not a lot of concious processing--established firmly, based on regularities
balance theory
when perceive self as in "unit" relationships w/ a person, will unduce positive sentiment toward that person--but maybe sentiment takes precedence sometimes?
when disagree w/ someone you lik, more likely to change opininos than sentiment
will alter explanations to self to reduce cognitive dissonance