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45 Cards in this Set

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DNA (DEOXYRIBONEUCLEIC ACID)
THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF HEREDITY, CONSTRUCTED OF A DOUBLE HELIX WHOSE PARALLEL STRANDS CONSIST OF BOTH PAIRS HELD TOGETHER BY HYDROGEN BONDS
CHROMOSOMES
A CARRIER OF GENES; ONE OF THE 46 MOLECULES OF DNA (IN 23 PAIRS) THAT EACH CELL OF THE BODY CONTAINS AND THAT, TOGETHER, CONTAIN ALL HUMAN GENES
GENOME
THE FULL SET OF CHROMOSOMES, WITH ALL THE GENES THEY CONTAIN, THAT MAKE UP THE GENETIC MATERIAL OF AN ORGANISM
GENE
THE BASIC UNIT FOR THE TRANSMISSION OF HEREDITY INSTRUCTIONS
A-ADENINE PAIRS WITH?
T-THIAMINE PAIRS WITH?
G-GUANINE PAIRS WITH?
C-CYTOSINE PAIRS WITH?
A-T
T-A
G-C
C-G
GAMETE
A REPRODUCTIVE CELL
ZYGOTE
THE SINGLE CELL FORMED FROM THE FUSING OF A SPERM AND AN OVUM
GENOTYPE
AN ORGANISM'S ENTIRE GENETIC INHERITANCE, OR GENETIC POTENTIAL
ALLELE
A SLIGHT, NORMAL VARIATION OF A PARTICULAR GENE
23RD PAIR
THE CHROMOSOME PAIR THAT, IN HUMANS, DETERMINES THE ZYGOTE'S SEX, AMONG OTHER THINGS
XX
A 23RD PAIR MEANS GIRL
XY
A 23RD PAIR THAT MEANS BOY
SPONTANEIOUS ABORTION
THE NATURALLY OCCURRING TERMINATION OF A PREGNANCY BEFORE THE FETUS IS FULLY DEVELOPED.
AKA MISCARRIAGE
MONOZYGOTIC TWINS
TWINS WHO HAVE IDENTICAL GENES BECAUSE THEY WERE FORMED FROM ONE ZYGOTE THAT SPLIT INTO 2 IDENTICAL ORGANISMS VERY EARLY IN DEVELOPMENT
DIZYGOTIC TWINS
TWINS WHO WERE FORMED WHEN 2 SEPARATE OVA WERE FERTILIZED BY 2 SEPARATE SPERM AT ROUGHLY THE SAME TIME
WHAT WOMEN (AGE AND ETHNICITY) ARE MORE LIKELY TO HAVE DIZYGOTIC TWINS?
LATE 30S-OVULATION IS IRREGULAR
NIGERIANS (1:25), ENGLAND (1:100), JAPANESE (1:700)
ON-OFF SWITCHING MECHANISMS
PROCESSES IN WHICH CERTAIN GENES CODE FOR PROTEINS THAT SWITCH OTHER GENES ON AND OFF, MAKING SURE THAT THE OTHER GENES PRODUCE PROTEINS AT THE APPROPRIATE TIMES
PHENOTYPE
A PERSON'S ACTUAL APPEARANCE AND BEHAVIOR, WHICH ARE THE RESULT OF BOTH GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
MULTIFACTORIAL
REFERRING TO INHERITED TRAITS THAT ARE INFLUENCED BY MANY FACTORS, INCLUDING FACTORS IN THE ENVIRONMENT, RATHER THAN BY GENETIC INFLUENCES ALONE.
POLYGENIC
REFERRING TO INHERITED TRAITS THAT ARE INFLUENCED BY MANY GENES, RATHER THAN BY A SINGLE GENE
ADDITIVE GENE
A GENE THAT, THROUGH INTERACTION WITH OTHER GENES, AFFECTS A SPECIFIC TRAIT (SUCH AS SKIN COLOR OR HEIGHT)
DOMINANT-RECESSIVE PATTERN
THE INTERACTION OF A PAIR OF ALLELES IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE PHENOTYPE REVEALS THE INFLUENCE OF ONE ALLELE (THE DOMINANT GENE) MORE THAN THAT OF THE OTHER (THE RECESSIVE GENE)
DOMINANT GENE
THE MEMBER OF AN INTERACTING PAIR OF ALLELES WHOSE INFLUENCE IS MORE EVIDENT IN THE PHENOTYPE
RECESSIVE GENE
THE MEMBER OF AN INTERACTING PAIR OF ALLELES WHOSE INFLUENCE IS LESS EVIDENT IN THE PHENOTYPE
X-LINKED
REFERRING TO A GENE THAT IS LOCATED ON THE X CHROMOSOME
HOW MANY DIFFERENT VERSIONS/COMBINATIONS CAN ONE PERSON PRODUCE OF THEIR 23 CHROMOSOMES CONTRIBUTED TO THEIR SPERM/OVA GENETIC MATERIAL?
8 MILLION VERSIONS/COMBINATIONS OF THE 23 CHROMOSOMES
HOW MANY VERSIONS/COMBINATIONS OF CHILDREN CAN A COUPLE PRODUCE?
64 TRILLION CHILDREN WITH VARYING CHROMOSOMES
HUMAN GENOME PROJECT
AN INTERNATIONAL EFFORT TO MAP THE COMPLETE HUMAN GENETIC CODE
WHAT ARE THE 3 FACTS REVEALED BY THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT?
1. ALL LIVING CREATURES SHARE GENES
2. THE MORE CLOSELY RELATED THE ORGANISMS, THE MORE GENES THEY HAVE IN COMMON.
3. HUMANS HAVE ONLY ABOUT 30,000 GENES (DOWN FROM 100,000)
CARRIER
A PERSON WHOSE GENOTYPE INCLUDES A GENE THAT IS NOT EXPRESSED IN HIS OR HER PHENOTYPE BUT CAN BE PASSED ON TO HIS OR HER CHILDREN
BEHAVIOR GENETICS
THE STUDY OF THE GENETIC ORIGINS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS, SUCH AS PERSONALITY PATTERNS, PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS, AND INTELLECTUAL ABILITIES
GENOTYPE
THE GENETIC POTENTIAL
PHENOTYPE
THE COMBINATION OF GENETIC POTENTIAL AND EXPRESSION
WHAT IS THE GENE THAT IS ASSOCIATED WITH ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE?
ApoE4 (ApoE2-less likely)
WHAT IS THE RATE OF SCHIZOPHRENIA IN THE GENERAL POPULATION VS WHEN A PARENT/SIBLING HAS IT?
1:12
WHAT CHROMOSOMES CONTAIN THE GENES THAT COULD POSSIBLY PREDISPOSE A PERSON TO SCHIZOPHRENIA?
1,5,6,10,13, 15, AND 22
MOSAIC
REFERRING TO A CONDITION IN WHICH A PERSON HAS A MIXTURE OF CELLS, SOME NORMAL AND SOME WITH THE INCORRECT NUMBER OF CHROMOSOMES
WHAT ARE FACTORS TO CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES?
ENVIRONMENT, MATERNAL AND PATERNAL AGE, HEREDITY
WHAT IS THE MOST COMMON EXTRA-CHROMOSOME CONDITION? AN EXTRA CHROMOSOME ON THE 21ST PAIR
DOWN'S SYNDROME
AKA TRISOMY-21
TRISOMY
AN EXTRA CHROMOSOME (THREE INSTEAD OF 2)
WHAT ARE SOME GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOMEONE WITH TRISOMY-21?
FACIAL-THICK TONGUE, ROUND FACE, SLANTED EYES
DISTINCTIVE HANDGS, FEET, FINGERPRINTS, HEARING PROBLEMS, HEART ABNORMALITIES, MUSCLE WEAKNESS AND SHORT STATURE.
ALMOST ALWAYS SOME MENTAL SLOWNESS
WITH THE EXCEPTION OF HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE, WHY AREN'T DOMINANT DISORDERS DISABLING?
BECAUSE IF IT WAS DISABLING MORE THAN LIKELY IT WOULD NOT BE ABLE TO BE PASSED ON BECAUSE THE PERSON AFFLICTED WOULD NOT HAVE CHILDREN.
FRAGILE X SYNDROME
A GENETIC DISORDER IN WHICH PART OF THE X CHROMOSOME IS ATTACHED TO THE REST OF IT BY A VERY THIN STRING OF MOLECULES, OFTEN PRODUCES MENTAL DEFICIENCY IN MALES WHO INHERIT IT.
GENETIC COUNSELING
A PROCESS OF CONSULTATION AND TESTING THAT ENABLES INDIVIDUALS TO LEARN ABOUT THEIR GENETIC HERITAGE, INCLUDING CONDITIONS THAT MIGHT HARM ANY CHILDREN THEY MAY HAVE.
WHO IS GENETIC COUNSELING RECOMMENDED FOR?
1. HAVE A PARENT, SIBLING, CHILD W/ A SERIOUS GENETIC DISORDER
2. HISTORY OF EARLY MISCARRIAGES, STILLBIRTHS OR INFERTILITY
3. COUPLES FROM SAME ETHNIC/SUBGROUP-ESPECIALLY CLOSE RELATIVES
4. WOMEN OVER 35 AND MEN OVER 40