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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cortex
The outer layer of the
brain in humans and other
mammals; it is the location of most thinking, feeling, and
sensing.
auditory cortex
hearing is quite acute at birth
visual cortex
least mature sense at birth
frontal cortex
assist in planning, self-control, and self-regualtion
axon
A nerve fiber that extends
from a neuron and transmits
electrical impulses from that
neuron to the dendrites of other neurons.
dendrite
A nerve fiber that
extends from a neuron and
receives electrical impulses
transmitted from other neurons
via their axons
synapse
The
intersection between the axon of
one neuron and the dendrites of
other neurons.
transient exuberance
The
great increase in the number of
dendrites that occurs in an
infant’s brain over the first two
years of life.
experience-expectant
Refers to
brain functions that require basic
common experiences (which the
infant can be expected to have)
in order to develop normally.
experience-dependent
Refers
to brain functions that depend on
particular, and variable,
experiences and that therefore
may or may not develop in a
particular infant.
sensation
The response of a
sensory system (eyes, ears,
skin, tongue, nose) when it
detects a stimulus
perception
The mental
processing of sensory
information, when the brain
interprets a sensation.
reflexes
maitaine oxegensupply,
maintaine contant body temp
manage feeding
gross motor skills
Physical
abilities involving large body
movements, such as walking and
jumping.
fine motor skills
Physical
abilities involving small body
movements, especially of the
hands and fingers, such as
drawing or picking up a coin
sensorimotor intelligence
stage 1
birth - 1 month
reflexes - sucking,grasping, staring, listening
sensorimotor intelligence
stage 2
1-4 months
the first aquired adaptation
(assimilation and coodination of reflexes)
grabbing a bottle to suck it
sensorimotor intelligence
stage 3
an awareness of things - responding go people and objects
sensorimotor intelligence
Piaget’s term for the intelligence
of infants during the first period
of cognitive development, when babies think by using their
senses and motor skills.
sensorimotor intelligence
stage 4
8-12 months
New adaptation and anticipation –becoming more deliberate and purposeful in responding to people and objects
sensorimotor intelligence
stage 5
12-18 months
New means through active experimentation - experimentation and creativity in the actions of the “little scientist
sensorimotor intelligence
stage 6
18-24 months
New means through mental combinations – considering before doing provides the child with new ways of achieving a goal without resorting to trial-and-error experiments
primary cicular reactions
The first of three types of
feedback loops, this one
involving the infant’s own
body. The infant senses
motion, sucking, noise, and so
on, and tries to understand
them.
secondary cicular reactions
The second of three types of
feedback loops, this one
involving people and objects.
The infant is responsive to
other people and to toys and
other objects that can be
manipulated.
object permanence
The
realization that objects
(including people) still exist
even when they cannot be seen,
touched, or heard
tertiary circular reactions
(TER-shee-air-ee SERK-youler)
The third of three types of
feedback loops, this one
involving active exploration and
experimentation. The infant
explores a range of new
activities, varying responses as a
way of learning about the world.
little scientist
Piaget’s term
for the stage-five toddler (age
12 to 18 months), who actively
experiments without
anticipating the results.
deferred imitation
A sequence
in which an infant first perceives
something that someone else does and then performs the same
action a few hours or even days
later.
habituation
The process of
getting used to an object or
event through repeated
exposure to it.
fMRI
Functional magnetic
resonance imaging, a
measuring technique in which
the brain’s magnetic properties indicate activation anywhere in the brain; fMRI helps locate neurological responses.
affordance
An opportunity for
perception and interaction that
is offered by people, places,
and objects in the
environment.
visual cliff
An
experimental apparatus
designed to provide the illusion
of a sudden dropoff between
one horizontal surface and
another.
dynamic perception
Perception that is primed to
focus on movement and
change
reminder session
A perceptual
experience that helps a person
recollect an idea or experience,
without testing whether the
person remembers it at the
momen
baby talk
The high-pitched,
simplified, and repetitive way
adults speak to infants; also
called child-directed speech.
babbling
The extended
repetition of certain syllables,
such as ba-ba-ba, that begins at
about 6 or 7 months of age.
naming explosion
A sudden
increase in an infant’s
vocabulary, especially in the
number of nouns, that begins at
about 18 months of age.
holophrase
A single word that is
used to express a complete,
meaningful thought.
grammar
All the methods—
word order, verb forms, and so
on—that languages use to
communicate meaning, apart
from the words themselves.
sensorimotor intelligence
stage 1
birth - 1 month
reflexes - sucking,grasping, staring, listening
sensorimotor intelligence
stage 2
1-4 months
the first aquired adaptation
(assimilation and coodination of reflexes)
grabbing a bottle to suck it
sensorimotor intelligence
stage 3
an awareness of things - responding go people and objects
sensorimotor intelligence
Piaget’s term for the intelligence
of infants during the first period
of cognitive development, when babies think by using their
senses and motor skills.
LANGUAGE ACQUISITION device
(LAD)
Chomsky’s term for a
hypothesized brain structure that
enables humans to learn
language, including the basic
aspects of grammar, vocabulary,
and intonation.
psychoanalytic theory
A grand
theory of human development
that holds that irrational,
unconscious drives and
motives, many of which
originate in childhood,
underlie human behavior.
trust v mistrust
Erikson’s
term for the first crisis of
psychosocial development, in
which the infant learns whether
the world is essentially a secure
place where basic needs are
always met or an unpredictable
arena where needs (for food,
comfort, etc.) are sometimes
unmet.
autnoomy v shame and doubt
Erikson’s term for the second
crisis of psychosocial
development, in which toddlers
either succeed or fail in gaining
a sense of self-rule over their
own actions and bodies.
behaviorism
A grand theory of
human development that focuses
on the sequences and processes
by which behavior is learned.
(Also called learning theory.)
epigenetic theory
An emergent theory of
development that emphasizes
the interaction of genes and the
environment—that is, both the
genetic origins of behavior
(within each person and within
each species) and the direct,
systematic influence that
environmental forces have, over
time, on genes.
sociocultural theory
An
emergent theory that holds that
human development results
from the dynamic interaction
between each person and the
surrounding social and cultural
forces.
stranger wariness
Fear of
unfamiliar people, exhibited
fleetingly at 6 months and at
full force by 10 to 14 months
seperation anxiety
Fear of
abandonment, exhibited at the
departure of a beloved caregiver;
usually strongest at 9 to
14 months.
self-awareness
A person’s
realization that he or she is a
distinct individual whose body,
mind, and actions are separate
from those of other people.
synchrony
A
coordinated interaction
between caregiver and infant,
who respond to each other’s
faces, sounds, and movements
very rapidly and smoothly.
attachment
According to
Ainsworth (1973), “an
affectional tie that one person or
animal forms between himself
and another specific one—a tie
that binds them together in space
and endures over time.”
secure attachment
A
relationship of trust and
confidence; during infancy, a
relationship that provides
enough comfort and
reassurance to enable
independent exploration of the
environment
base for exploration
The
caregiver’s role in a
relationship of secure
attachment, in which the child
freely ventures forth and
returns
insecure attachment
A
relationship that is unstable or
unpredictable; in infancy such
relationships are characterized
by the child’s fear, anxiety,
anger, clinging, or seeming
indifference toward the
caregiver.
insecure-avoidant
Referring to
a pattern of attachment in which
one person tries to avoid any
connection with another, as an
infant who is uninterested in the
caregiver’s presence or
departure and ignores the caregiver
on reunion.
insecure-resistan/ambivalent
Referring to a pattern of
attachment in which anxiety and
uncertainty keep one person
clinging to another, as an infant
who resists active exploration, is
very upset at separation, and
both resists and seeks contact on
reunion.
disorganized
A category of
attachment that is neither secure
nor insecure but is marked by
the child’s and caregiver’s inconsistent behavior toward
each other.
social referancing
Seeking
information about an unfamiliar
or ambiguous object or event
by observing someone else’s
expressions and reactions. That
other person becomes a
reference, consulted when the
infant wants to know how to
react.
LANGUAGE ACQUISITION device
(LAD)
Chomsky’s term for a
hypothesized brain structure that
enables humans to learn
language, including the basic
aspects of grammar, vocabulary,
and intonation.
psychoanalytic theory
A grand
theory of human development
that holds that irrational,
unconscious drives and
motives, many of which
originate in childhood,
underlie human behavior.
trust v mistrust
Erikson’s
term for the first crisis of
psychosocial development, in
which the infant learns whether
the world is essentially a secure
place where basic needs are
always met or an unpredictable
arena where needs (for food,
comfort, etc.) are sometimes
unmet.
autnoomy v shame and doubt
Erikson’s term for the second
crisis of psychosocial
development, in which toddlers
either succeed or fail in gaining
a sense of self-rule over their
own actions and bodies.
behaviorism
A grand theory of
human development that focuses
on the sequences and processes
by which behavior is learned.
(Also called learning theory.)
epigenetic theory
An emergent theory of
development that emphasizes
the interaction of genes and the
environment—that is, both the
genetic origins of behavior
(within each person and within
each species) and the direct,
systematic influence that
environmental forces have, over
time, on genes.
sociocultural theory
An
emergent theory that holds that
human development results
from the dynamic interaction
between each person and the
surrounding social and cultural
forces.
stranger wariness
Fear of
unfamiliar people, exhibited
fleetingly at 6 months and at
full force by 10 to 14 months
seperation anxiety
Fear of
abandonment, exhibited at the
departure of a beloved caregiver;
usually strongest at 9 to
14 months.
self-awareness
A person’s
realization that he or she is a
distinct individual whose body,
mind, and actions are separate
from those of other people.
LANGUAGE ACQUISITION device
(LAD)
Chomsky’s term for a
hypothesized brain structure that
enables humans to learn
language, including the basic
aspects of grammar, vocabulary,
and intonation.
psychoanalytic theory
A grand
theory of human development
that holds that irrational,
unconscious drives and
motives, many of which
originate in childhood,
underlie human behavior.
trust v mistrust
Erikson’s
term for the first crisis of
psychosocial development, in
which the infant learns whether
the world is essentially a secure
place where basic needs are
always met or an unpredictable
arena where needs (for food,
comfort, etc.) are sometimes
unmet.
autnoomy v shame and doubt
Erikson’s term for the second
crisis of psychosocial
development, in which toddlers
either succeed or fail in gaining
a sense of self-rule over their
own actions and bodies.
behaviorism
A grand theory of
human development that focuses
on the sequences and processes
by which behavior is learned.
(Also called learning theory.)
epigenetic theory
An emergent theory of
development that emphasizes
the interaction of genes and the
environment—that is, both the
genetic origins of behavior
(within each person and within
each species) and the direct,
systematic influence that
environmental forces have, over
time, on genes.
sociocultural theory
An
emergent theory that holds that
human development results
from the dynamic interaction
between each person and the
surrounding social and cultural
forces.
stranger wariness
Fear of
unfamiliar people, exhibited
fleetingly at 6 months and at
full force by 10 to 14 months
seperation anxiety
Fear of
abandonment, exhibited at the
departure of a beloved caregiver;
usually strongest at 9 to
14 months.
self-awareness
A person’s
realization that he or she is a
distinct individual whose body,
mind, and actions are separate
from those of other people.