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85 Cards in this Set

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Articles and quantifiers are within what category?
Determiners
A, an, the, this, that, these, those, each, every, either, neither, much, enough, some, any, no, few, more, all, both, such, numbers, are all examples of determiners that serve as?
Noun-markers and are always before a noun.
The determiners ALL or MOST are used with what types of nouns?
Both plural countable and uncountable nouns.
When referring to every thing or person in the group you are talking about?
All. [All books must be returned within 4 weeks. (all the books that have been borrowed from the library)]
When referring to nearly all of the people, things you are talking about then the determiner used is?
Most. [Most people in the city enjoyed the festival. (nearly all)]
Can ALL and MOST be used as pronouns?
(All of my friends came to visit me when I was in hospital. Most of us have been vaccinated.)
When NONE is followed by a plural noun or objective pronoun, the verb is usually?
Plural, however, you can also use a singular verb. (None of us have/has realized what the problem was. None of them is/are expensive.)
The determiners BOTH, EITHER and NEITHER are used to refer to?
Groups of two.
BOTH is used with what types of nouns?
Countable plural nouns. [Both men arrived late. Both her brothers are lawyers. (Both is used with some specific determiners: the, my, these..)]
When used as a conjunction, BOTH is structured in what form?
Both …and. (Both Peter and I have been abroad.)
EITHER and NEITHER are used with what types of nouns?
Singular nouns, unless they are used as pronouns with the preposition of. [Either boy is suitable for the game (either of the boys - refers to 1 of the 2). Neither boy is suitable for the game (neither of them - no boy of a group of two).
Can NEITHER a plural verb?
Yes. (Neither of the students were in the classroom.)
When used as a conjunction, EITHER is structured in what form?
Either ..or. (You can have either a refund or a voucher.)
When used as a conjunction, NEITHER is structured in what form?
Neither…nor [Neither Peter nor his aunt was at home. (The verb agrees in number with the last person mentioned)]
ANOTHER is used with what type of noun?
Singular nouns. (I would like another glass of wine.)
When can ANOTHER be used with a plural noun?
When it is used with a number and a plural noun. (I will have to study another two years.)
OTHER, by itself, is used with what type of noun?
Plural nouns. (He has other things to tell you.)
THE OTHER is used with what type of noun?
Singular ones. (The other thing he wants to tell you is that he has been fired.)
EACH AND EVERY are followed by a singular noun and refer to?
All the members of a group.
EACH is used when you consider the members as?
Individuals. (Each student has to bring a toy for the festival.)
EVERY is used when you consider the members as?
A group, speaking in general. [Every day I get up very early. (general statement about all days of the week)]
In formal English, WHEN, EACH, EVERY, EITHER, NEITHER and ONE are used with what type of pronoun?
Personal pronouns. (Either of the schools will offer you its best schedule.)
In formal English, when, each, every, either, neither and one are used with what type of possessive adjective?
Singular possessive adjectives. [(His, his or her, or its) Each of the boys returned his books.]
In informal English, when, each, every, either, neither and one are used with what type of possessive adjective?
Plural possessive adjectives. (Neither of the boys returned their books.)
Articles are also determiners and they?
Refer to specific or general things.
A and AN signal that the noun modified is?
Indefinite, referring to any member of a group.
Indefinite articles are used with singular nouns when the noun is?
General.
When an indefinite noun or an adjective before the indefinite noun commences with a consonant, the pattern of the indefinite article and noun is?
A + singular noun or A + adjective +singular noun (a boy or a broken egg)
When an indefinite noun or an adjective before the indefinite noun commences with a vowel, the pattern of the indefinite article and noun is?
AN + singular noun or AN + adjective + singular noun. (an elephant or an unusual problem)
When an indefinite noun or an adjective before the indefinite noun commences with a vowel that has a consonant sound, the pattern of the indefinite article and noun is?
A + singular noun or A + adjective + singular noun. [A user (sounds like 'yoo-zer,' i.e. begins with a consonant 'y' sound, so 'a' is used ) or A European country (sounds like 'yer-o-pi-an,' i.e. begins with consonant 'y' sound)]
Can the indefinite quantity word SOME be used for plural general nouns?
Yes
When an indefinite noun is plural, the pattern of the indefinite article and noun is?
SOME + plural noun: (Some girls)
Are the indefinite articles used to indicate membership in a profession, nation, or religion?
Yes. (I am a teacher. Brian is an Irishman. Seiko is a practicing Buddhist.)
What are the two types of articles?
Indefinite (a/an) and definite articles (the).
A and AN are used with what type of noun?
Singular countable noun. (I am eating an orange. She is a doctor.)
Can you use a/an to talk about a person or thing for the first time?
Yes. (A man entered the shop. The man was carrying a heavy bag.)
To give more information on the subject, A or AN can be used with an adjective?
After a linking verb. (He was a caring man.)
Can A or AN be used with jobs?
Yes. (She is a teacher.)
Can the indefinite article be used with nouns that refer to numbers, money, weights?
Yes. (A thousand. A dollar. A kilo.)
When the indefinite article refers to people or things in general, what type of noun is used?
Singular countable nouns. (A whale is a mammal.)
A or AN are never used with what type of nouns?
Plural nouns or uncountable nouns.
When generalizing do you need to use a determiner?
No. (I hate cats).
What determiners can be used to generalize? Any, some, several, a few, many. (Do you speak any languages?
There are a few books on the shelf.)
When the following noun starts with the vowels : a, e, i, o, u, what indefinite article should be used?
An. (An apple, an egg, an ice- cream , an orange. an umbrella)
When can A be used, instead of AN, with the vovel “u”?
When “u” is pronounced with the sound /j/ which has consonantal properties. (a uniform, a union, a unicorn, a European woman.)
What indefinite article is used before a noun beginning with a silent /H/?
AN. (an hour , an honorable person)
What article is used when the noun is known or has been mentioned before?
The definite article. [The students were very tired after the exam (the speaker and listener know which students and which test they are talking about). A man entered the shop. The man was carrying a heavy bag.]
When the noun is particular or specific, can the definite article be used before singular and plural nouns?
Yes.
What article refers to a particular member of a group?
THE signals that the noun is definite,.
Generally, THE is used or not used with noncountable nouns?
Not Used. (Referring to something in a general sense, such as Coffee, Japanese, Intelligence)
THE can be used with noncountable nouns that are made more specific by?
A limiting modifying phrase or clause. (The coffee in my cup is too hot. The Japanese he speaks is excellent. The intelligence of animals is variable but undeniable.)
When a noun refers to something unique what article may be used?
THE. (The White House. the theory of relativity. the 1999 federal budget.)
When we are specifying which person or thing we are talking about, what type of clause or phrase can be used with THE?
A relative clause or a prepositional phrase. (I want to get information on the history of this city. The man that I saw at the bus stop this morning was Sue’s friend.)
With superlatives, the article should be?
Definite. (She is the most beautiful girl I‘ve ever seen.)
THE is used with nouns that are?
Unique or there is only one of that kind. [The kitchen is huge. (there is only one kitchen in a house). The sun / the moon/ the sky.]
THE is used with instruments?
Yes. (I played the piano when I was a child.)
With countries whose names include “republic, states, kingdom, union…or have plural names, can THE be used?
Yes. (the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the People’s Republic of China)
THE should never be used with names of?
Countries (generally one word names), cities, towns, or states, streets, lakes and bays (except with a group of lakes like the Great Lakes), mountains (except with ranges of mountains like the Andes or unusual names like the Matterhorn), continents, islands (except with island chains like the Aleutians, the Hebrides, or the Canary Islands).
Should THE should be used for names of rivers, points on the globe, geographical areas, deserts, forests, gulfs, and peninsulas?
Yes.
Can we use THE when we talk about a family?
Yes. (I invited the Robinsons for dinner.)
With adjectives such as poor, rich, old, deaf etc.. or to talk about a group of people, what article may be used?
THE (the rich and the poor. a good appliance for the deaf.)
When they refer to the primary purpose of that noun, what nouns may not be used with THE?
Hospital, church, prison, school, university etc. [He went to church. (He went to pray.) but He went to the church. (He went to talk to the priest.) He is at hospital. (He is sick) but He is at the hospital. (He went to visit someone.)]
What type of determiner precede and modify nouns and tell us about how much or how many?
Quantifiers.
A few, a little, many, much, several, none of, a couple of, a bit of, a great deal of, plenty of, most of, lots of , & a lot of are all examples of?
Quantifiers
What type of determiner talks about “Quantity” without specifying the exact number?
A Quantifier.
Which quantifier is used in negative and interrogative sentences with uncountable nouns?
MUCH. [I don’t have much money. Did you drink much coffee? How much (money) does it cost? (with the interrogative pronoun HOW to ask about quantity)]
When is MUCH used in affirmative sentences?
When MUCH is used with intensifiers such as "so" or "too" to give emphasis or express that something is larger than necessary. (There was too much work to do. I have so much time to spend.)
MANY is used with what type of nouns?
Plural nouns. [There are many old people still working in the field. How many novels have you read? (with the interrogative pronoun HOW to ask about quantity)]
How can MANY be used to give emphasis or express that something is larger than necessary?
By using MANY with so or too. (There were too many kids to enter the competition.
LOTS, A LOT OF and PLENTY OF are used with what kind of nouns and in what kind of sentences?
Countable and uncountable nouns in affirmative sentences. (I made a lot of mistakes. He has lots of money. There are plenty of opportunities in this industry.)
FEW and A FEW are used with countable nouns and they refer to?
A small number of people or things.
FEW implies the quantity is?
Very small. [They made few mistakes in the test. (1 or 2)]
A FEW means?
Some. [They made a few mistakes in the test. (some)]
LITTLE and A LITTLE are used with uncountable nouns and refer to?
A small quantity of something.
LITTLE or A LITTLE means?
Some. [You have little money left in your bank account. Give me a little money to buy some groceries. (some)]
A noun that is countable, mentioned first or general is usually preceded by what article?
A or AN. (I would like an apricot.)
What article is used to introduce a noun when it is mentioned for the first time in a piece of writing?
A or AN.
A noun that noncountable, mentioned subsequently or specific is preceded by what article?
THE. (The milk was spilled)
Once a noun is mentioned for the first time in a piece of writing, what article used afterward each time you mention that same noun?
THE.
Can THERE IS and THERE ARE be used to introduce an indefinite noun at the beginning of a paragraph or essay?
Yes. (There is a robin in the tree outside my window. When my cat jumps up on the desk, the robin flies away).
To indicate that a noun refers to the whole class to which individual countable nouns belong, what article may be used?
A, AN and THE. [A tiger is a dangerous animal. (any individual tiger) The tiger is a dangerous animal. (all tigers: tiger as a generic category)]
Does the indefinite A or AN mean any one member of a class?
Yes.
Does the generic A and AN mean all of the members of a class?
Yes.
Another way to express a generic (or general) meaning is to omit?
The article. [Tigers (all tigers) are dangerous animals. (No article with a plural noun). Anger (any kind of anger) is a destructive emotion. (No article with a non-countable noun)]
When do nouns never take an article?
Names of languages and nationalities (Chinese, English, Spanish, Russian), Names of sports (volleyball, hockey, baseball), Names of academic subjects (mathematics, biology, history, computer science)