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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what does a verb's TENSE involve?
formal marking that locates predication with respect to moment of speaking
What are the three tenses in English?
past, present, future (paraphrastic).
What does the ASPECT of a verb entail?
the way in which the predication is regarded or experienced with regard to time in general.
what are the three aspects of the english verb?
perfect, progressive, simple
what inflectional form does the Progressive aspect take?
-ing participle (present)
what semantics are associated with the Progressive aspect?
event regarded as ongoing and incomplete
What is the inflectional form of the Perfect aspect?
-ed/-en participle (past participle)
what are the semantics of the Perfect aspect?
event regarded as complete (but many complications)
What is the inflectional form of the Simple aspect?
no inflectional marking
what are the semantics of the simple aspect?
no specification...punctual intepretation common.
what is the semantic quality of inchoation? (regarded aspect)
transition of event from some nul state:

the student BECAME upset.
What is the lexical aspect of the English verb?
aspectual distinctions within the semantics of the individual verbs themselves.
What is the difference between stative and dynamic verbs (as it pertains to the lexical aspect)?
stative verbs express a state of affiars while dynamic verbs express an action or change in the world.
What is the difference between punctual and durative verbs (as it related to the lexical aspect)?
punctual verbs do not last in time, while durative verbs convey actions that last in some span of time:

hit, cough, hammer vs.
sleep, walk, think
What is the difference between telic and atelic verbs as it relates to lexical aspect)?
telic verbs have a built in terminal point which atelic verbs lack.
What are the primary auxiliary verbs?
Do, Be, Have
What are the modal auxiliary verbs (as opposed to the primary)?
can, may, should, could, can, must, might, would, will
What do Epistemic, modal auxiliaries convey?
possibility, probablility, necessity.
What do Deontic, modal auxiliaries convey?
permission, obligation.
What are the 5 forms of the lexical verb?
Base, -s form, present part. (ing), past, past part. (ed).
How do you distinguish Finite verbs from Non-finite?
Finite verbs are inflected for tense, number agreement, and/or mood.
What are anaphoric pronouns?
pronouns which point back to their referential NP's.
What are cataphoric pronouns?
pronouns which point forward to their referential NP's (less common).
List the 10 pronounc types
subject, object, possesive, interrogative, demonstrative, relative, universal, reflexive, partitive, predicative.
What separates pronouns from their determinative counterparts?
pronouns substitute for a NP, determiners modify them. (*except possessive pronouns)
What are the three sets of partitive pronouns?
assertive, non-assertive, negative.
what distinguishes non-assertive partitive pronouns from the assertive
non-assertive partitives used when Sentence is interrogative or conditional.
What is the case of a noun?
a marking that indicates its function in the clause.
how many cases does English have?
common (unmarked) and genitive (possession usually)
what are the two forms of the genitive?
inflected (-'s genitive) and the paraphrastic (of - genitive)
what are the 8 semantic categories of the genitive?
subject, object, possessive, genitive of origin, descriptive, partitive, genitive of attribute, appostive.
How are adverbials realized structurally?
adverb phrases, NP's, PP's, clauses with finite or non-finite verbs, verbless clauses. basically everything.
What separates the class of adverbials known as adjuncts from the adverbial classes of conjuncts and disjuncts?
asjuncts are more highly integrated. adjuncts work in the negative declarative. adjuncts allow negative focus/W/H questions substitute well for adjuncts.
what separates conjuncts from disjuncts?
dijuncts articulate some relation between speaker and clause. conjucts link clauses.
what are the two classes of disjuncts?
style (conditions of saying, comment on form) and attitude (speaker's comments on content of clause).
what do focusing adjuncts do?
limit or restrict what is said in the main clause.
what do process adjuncts do?
convey manner, means, or the instrument with which an action is done.
what are the different sorts of intensifier adjuncts?
emphasizers, amplifiers, downtoners.
what is the difference between amplifying and emphasizing adjuncts?
emphasizers push up the scale of what you know about the action conveyed while amplifiers simply boost the predication. emphasizers are needed to obtain more meaning.
what are the possible misc. adjuncts?
purpose or source
what are the three possible time adjuncts?
point, duration, and frequency