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151 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
CT includes everything EXCEPT
epithelium
muscle
nerve
Connective tissue arises from what type of cells?
mesoderm
name the active cell type found in CT
fibroblasts
T or F: Fibroblasts are coded to make only one type of protein
False: Fibroblasts are gentically coded to make a protein, it can switch and make something different
how many protein types can active fibroblasts secrete?

name them:
3

1. collagen (mostly secreted)
2. reticulin
3. elastin
where is fibrous tissue located in th body?
can be found everywhere
an undifferentiated, dedicated mesoermal cell that can secrete any of the proteins; limited stem cell
mesenchymal cell
retired, inactive fibroblast that can be called back to duty and become active if new protein secretions are needed (ex. injury)
fibrocyte
what are the 4 types of fibrous tissue?
1. regular
2. irregular
3. dense
4. loose
how are the fibers arranged in irregular loose CT?

where could you find it on the body?
very little collagen, lots of space for extra

lower arm
what is the arrangement of dense irregular CT?

where coul you find it on the body?
alot of collagen packed randomly; not alot of sponge

hard palate/attatched gingiva
what is the arrangement of loose regular CT?

where could you find it on the body?
NO SUCH THING AS LOOSE REGULAR!
What is the arrangement of regular CT?
linear sheats

found in tendons and ligaments
what is the difference between ligaments and tendons?
tendons attatch muscle to bone

ligaments attatch bone to bone
what is the major difference between reticulin and collagen?
reticulin is thinner and not as abundant as collagen
what type of reticulin tissue makes up the framework/foundation for tissues and organs (support, think 2x4's)
reticulin
this fibrous tissue is similar to collagen but has the ability to stretch and revert back to it's original shape; gives tissue memory (ex. skin)
elastin
does cartilage contain blood vessels?
nope
all CT develops from these types of cells
mesenchymal cells
T or F: chodroblasts and fibroblasts are fond within the same tissue
True
the active cell responsible for secretion of hyaline protein
chondroblast
name the 3 types of cartilage
1. elastic
2. fibrocartilage
3. hyaline
this type of cartilage contains hyaline with alot of elastin (ex. ear)
Elastic
this cartilage type contains hyaline with alot of collagen
(ex. intevertebral discs; also TMJ)
Fibrocartilage
this cartilage type contains ALL hyaline ( ex lining bones in joints-aka: articular cartilage)
Hyaline
how many chondroblasts/cytes would I usually find within the lacunae in cartilage tissue? what is surrounding the lacunae?
2

hyaline
crystilized material that makes up teeth
hydroxyaptite
when cartilage grows from within the tissue, what type of growth is that caled?
interstitial growth

(think enter: inside)
when there's no lacunae present and the cartilage growth is on top of growth, what type of gwoth is that called?
appositional growth
what is the name of the layer where cartilage appositional growth occurs?
perichondrium layer
what is the compostion (percentage) of bone?
67% hydroxyapatite
33% organic
what is the composition of the "organic" portion that bones are made of?
collagen/elastin + water
what are the 2 types of bone?
1. membranous
2. endochondral
where does membranous bone arise from?
soft tissue; no pre-exsisting cartilage
where does endochondral bone arise from?
pre-exsisting cartilage
what is the active cell type that secrete osteoid protein?
osteoblasts
this cell type breaks down bone
osteoclasts
this retired, inactive cell can be called to active duty to secreted osteoid if needed
osteocyte
bones of the face and skull arise from this bone type
membranous
T of F: like cartilage bone grows by way of interstitial and appositional growth
True
this layer is where appositional growth occurs in bone
periosteum
bones gets laid down in concentric circles called?
lamellae
what are the 2 bone types?
1. dense = compact
2. spongy = cancellous
The maxilary bone is made up of dense or spongy bone?
spongy = cancellous
what is the bone type(s) found in the mandibular bone?
dense on the outside (corticle plate), inside spongy/cancellous
these spurs/spines are left over compact bone found in spongy bone
trabeculae
locatd in the center of an osteon, this runs the length of a bone and provides nourishment/carries waste for osteocytes
Haversian canal
what is INSIDE the Haversian canal?
blood vessels (artery + vein)
and sometimes a nerve
canals that run horizontally and provides communication between lamellae are called?
Volkmans canal
canals within osteon that send nourishment also carries waste to/from haversian canal
canaliculi
what is the most common way that bone grows?
by way of interstitial growth
Bone starts out as _ cartilage
hyaline
when we're born peristeum forms around our bones, but they aren't calcified yet except where?
skull bones in babies
Bone grows appositionally here at the _ _ . Growth stops and this is replaced by bone.
Epithelial plate
multinucleated cells who's function is to destroy bone
osteoclasts
osteoclasts leave a mark (depression) on bone as it destoys it called
howships lacunae
T or F: bone gets reabsorbed (eaten away) as pressure is put on it
True
T or F: when pressure is applied aborbtion of bone occurs on the ends not the outside of the bone
False: absorbtion happens on the outside not the ends
adipose tissue active cell
lipoblasts
retired adipose tissue cell that can return to active duty if needed
lipocytes
the protein content in serum
albumin
the fluid component of blood=
the cellular component=
serum
RBC's and WBC's
this RBC type has no nucleus, is bioconcave (donut w/o hole) and is shaped like a dumbell
erythrocytes
the function of erythrocytes
carry hemoglobin
what 3 gases do erythrocytes have an affinity for?
o2, co2 and carbon monoxide
what is the reason for irregular shaped RBC's in a disease like sickle cell?
1 amino acid missing or in the wrong sequence in the gene code
this RBC is not a real cell, its a fragment of a prexsisting one
thrombocytes
the function of a throbocyte is?
a mechanical plug

aggulation: th process of platelets sticking together
what is meant by "bleeding time"?
the time it takes th platelets to stick together and stop a cut fro bleeding
describe the cascasing phenomenon of clotting
inactive factor XII becomes active and activates inactive XI which activates inactve X and so on
bloods 12 clotting fators are found in what component of blood?
albumin
clotting system activatd by internal bleeding
intrinsic
clotting system activated by external bleeding
extrinsic
which of the 12 clotting factors am I missing if I have:

1. hemophilia A?
2. hemophilia B?
3. hemophilia C?
IIX 8
IX 9
XI 11
name the 2 types of WBC's
Granulocytes and Agranulocytes
the 3 types of granulocytes
Neutrophils, Basophils and Eosinophils
this granulocyte is a polymorphonuclear (many shped nucleus) that stains CLEAR and its graules consist of bags of lysosomes
Neutrophils
the function of neutrophils is?
phagocytosis: inject foreign debris
most numerous WBC at a site of injury
neutrophil
this granulocyte stains BLUE has bags of histaine located w/in it's granuals and is also polymorphonuclear
basophils
causes blood vessels to leak ad tissue to swell
histamine
when not located in the blood stream, a bsophil is called what?
mast cell
this granulocyte stains PINK/RED and an increase of these are present where parasites might arise
eosinophils
this division of WBC types are cells of the immune system with no granuals located in the cytoplasm
Agranulocytes
what are the 2 types of lymphocytes?
T cell
B cell
what is the function of basophils?
inflamation
T cells are infuenced by?
th thymus gland
__ are attatched to the T cells membrane so __ of foriegn cells can attatch to them
Antibodies
Antigens
B cells are influenced by?
Bursa = Homoral
antibodies of B cells are secreted not attatched; T or F
True
the antibody secretion of B cells is called
Immunoglobin
name the antibodies B cells secrete
MADGE
IgM: macro
IgA: secretory (nasal, salaiv, tears etc.)
IgD
IgG important
IgE ectopic (skin rashes, poison ivy)
How do Ig's work?
if they encounter an antigen it will attach, each Ig recognizes a particular antigen
If a B cell that has become sensitized to a particular antigen and is producing Ig's is a?
Plasma Cell

( a B cell with a job )
large cell in the blood stream with no function until they leave and become Macrophages
Monocytes
can fuse together to become multinucleated; function is to eat foreign debris at an injury site
macrophage
Striated Muscles: aka __, aka __
voluntary,skeletal

if you can il it to move it will move
Rhabomyoblasts/cytes are/have:

1. active and retired __ muscle cells?
2. many/one nucleus?
3. striations/none?
striated muscle
many
striations
Smooth muscle: aka _
Involuntary
Leiomyoblast/cytes are/have:

1. active and retired __ muscle cells?
2. many/one nucleus?
3. striations/none?
smooth
one
none
your diaphragm is striated/not striated, you can control your breathing
striated
cardiac aka __ muscle
involuntary
the branching cells in cardiac muscle are connected by?
intercalated discs
why are the cells of cardiac muscle branching?
coordinates milking action of the heart
what is muscles main function
to do work
skeletal muscle must have a point of ___ and a point of ___
origin

insertion
is the point of origin on the moveable/least moveable bone?
least moveable
muscle accomplishes work by
contracting-getting shorter
what is a z band?
an achoring point for muscle fibrils
is the insertion located on the moveable/least moveable bone?
moveable
striation in visible in muscle are?
z bands
what is the smallest contractile unit of a muscle?
sarcomere
what are the myofilaments of a contractile band?
myosin and actin
what happens to the Z band when the myosin and actin contract?
the z bands get closer: contract: shorten
smooth muscle is tasked to do lighter jobs except where?
uterus
why can't you see striations in smooth muscle?
myofilaments fewer in #

(only visible under electron microscope/not a light miscroscope)
what is the makeup of a bicep muscle fiber cut in cross section?
muscle fiber
myofibers
myofibrils (myofilaments groups)
myofilaments(actin and myosin)
can skeletal or cardiac muscle reproduce?
no
can smooth muscle reproduce?
yes
this cell type has lost the ability to reproduce
permanent cell
this cell type always reproduces (Ex. epithelium)
labile
this cell type only reproduces when needed
stable
the term used to describe when a tissue grows in size

o ---> O
Hypertrophy
the term used to describe cell overgrowth

o --->oooo

ex. Rhabomydodisplasia cancer-lethal
Hyperplasia
term used to describe new cell growth
neoplasia
a specialized tissue thaat carries an electrical potential (unmeasureable)
nerve tissue
what is the normal charges of a nerve cell on the inside/outside?
inside -
outside +
what could we conclude if the charge of a nerve is found to be + and the outside -
a stimulus has activated it;
calcium and potassium have entered
nerve impulses travel in all directions T or F
F: nerve impulses only travel in one direction
the CNS consists of
brain and spinal cord
teh PNS consists of
everything except the brain and spinal cord
spinal nerves and cranial nerves belong to this nervous system
PNS
what is the flow of an impulse going in/exiting a nerve cell?
Dendrite->cell body->axon
responsible for fight or flight reflex
sympathetic
responsible for rest and digest reflex
parasympathetic
T or F: the sympathetic and parasympathetic always work together
False: they are always workign against ea other
sensory (senses) nerves that report info to brain

( ex. tell brain its a hot stove)
afferent
brain tells these motor nerves to react

( ex. getcha hand off the stove)
efferent
this unit is composed of a dendrite, cell body and axon
neuron
consists of the axon of one nerve, the space between and the dendrite after the space
synapse
the space between the axon and dendrite in the synapse is called
synaptic cleft
when the impulse gets to the axon how does it communicate to the next dendrite?
neurotransmitters
how do we get the nerve impulse carried by the neurotransmitter to stop sending the impulse at the dendrite?
enzymes destroy the neurotransmitters to stop the impulse
what do MAOI inhibitors do?
stop enzymes from breakign down neurotransmitters

( ex. depression)
synapse between a nerve and muscle cell are called
neuromuscular junction
the insulating coat found on nerves
myelin sheath
what part of the neuron is myelinated if it is a myelinate cell?
the axon
would i usually find myelinated nerves on smaller or larger cells?
larger
a type of myelin sheath
neurilema aka schwann cell
the bare spots between myelin coats
node of ranvier
how does a pain killer work
blocks the impulse so it cant get to the neurotransmitter to send to the next neuron or brain