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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What specifies atomic number and elements?
What specifies isotopes?
What specifies chemical reactivity?
Which two are always equal in number? Why?
Number of protons and electrons are always the same to keep the electrical charge of an atom neutral
What physical parameter differentiates any isotope?
The mass of an atom, which depends on the number of neutrons present
Describe electrostatic bond.
In electrostatic bonds, electrons are donated giving rise to charged particles, anions and cations
Describe covalent bonding.
Electrons are shared forming molecules (glucose)
Describe a covalent polarized bond.
Creates a molecule in which part is electron-rich and part is electron-poor
What maintains a hydrogen-bonded liquid in water?
the polarized bond caused by the electron withdrawing property of the oxygen atom permits more positively charged hydrogen atom to share oxygen atoms
Define autotroph.
refers to an organism whose metabolism allows it to obtain all of its carbon from CO2, a gas
Define heterotroph.
refers to an organism whose metabolism allows it to obtain its carbon from a mixture of solid and liquid organic (carbon) compounds (food)
What is respiration?
the production of energy (ATP) by oxygen gas oxidizing carbon compounds; water (reduced O2) and CO2 (oxidized carbon)are the products, usually in mitochondria or their bacterial equivalent on the inner cell membrane
What is fermentation?
the production of energy (ATP) in the absence of molecular oxygen
By what means are cavities and calculus formed?
Heterotrophs and fermentation
What is meant by saccharolytic fermentation?
Bacteria that obtain energy for growth in the absence of oxygen by utilizing carbohydrate
What is the substrate in saccharolytic fermentation?
a saccharide that is broken to a free hexose such as glucose or fructose in the bacterial environment
What is the usual end product of saccharolytic fermentation?
What is required to make hexose phosphate and fructose bisphosphate?
How is ATP made?
by converting GAP-3 to 3-phosphoglycerate and PEP to pyruvate
Why is their a net synthesis of ATP but no net synthesis of NADH?
2 ATPs are used and 4 ATPs are produced; NADH produced by oxidation of GAP-3 is reoxidized to NAD+ by reducing pyruvate to lactate
What is asaccharolytic bacterial fermentation?
bacteria obtain energy for growth in the absence of oxygen by utilizing proteins
What is the substrate in asaccharolytic bacterial fermentation?
a free amino acid derived from proteins by proteolysis
What are the 2 important end products of asaccharolytic bacterial fermentation?
ammonia from amino groups and short chain fatty acids derived from reducing the carbon skeletons of the amino acids
Why does ammonia accumulate more in the gingival sulcus than elsewhere in the body?
Elsewhere in the body, ammonia is made in eukaryotic cells that metabolize it to urea. The bacteria induce host proteins to enter the sulcus; the ammonia made by assacharolytic growth makes the sulcus alkaline and CaPO4 in blood plasma and saliva precipitate forming calculus and traps the bacteria.
What does plastoquinone do?
it's an electron carrier that takes up protons from outside the chloroplast thylakoid membrane when reduced (PQH2) and passes them to the interior when reoxidized (PQ). Its action provides protons that make ATP as they diffuse out of the thalakoid membrane lumen to the cytosol.
What does photosystem I provide for utilization in the dark reaction?
it reduces the electrons that are transferred from plastoquinone and transfers them to NADP+ to produce reducing equivalents (NADPH).
What is the first product of the dark reaction?
3-phophoglycerate from ribulose bisphosphate and CO2
Name the 6-carbon sugar that is first produced from photosynthesis?
fructose-6-phosphate, a derivative of fructose
Write the reaction that produces sucrose from glucose and fructose in plants. (It occurs in tthe leaf cell cytosol)
UDP-Glc + Fru-6-Phos = Sucrose 6-phosphate; sucrose-6-phosphate is then hydrolyzed to sucrose and phosphate by sucrose phosphatase
Where does starch first accumulate in the cell?
within the chloroplasts
What amino acids primarily account for the secondary and quaternary structure of collagen fibers?
Proline and hydroxyproline
What are the 2 functions of hydroxyproline in the structure of collagen?
contributes to helical tropocollagen polypeptides, and its OH group H-bonds to nearby keto groups of peptide bonds in adjacent polypeptides, stabilizing the triple helix at 37 celsius
What is the effect of reduced hydroxyproline content on the tropocollagen stability at 37 celsius?
less of it destabilizes the triple helix and it is stable at a lower body temperature as in cold water fish
What is tropocollagen?
monomeric subunit precursor of collagen fibers
Describe alpha, beta, and gamma tropocollagen?
Beta & Gamma are post-translational modifications of alpha. Beta is a covalently linked tropocollagen dimer. Gamma is a covalently linked trimer.
What 2 amino acids and 1 enzyme are responsible for alpha, beta, gamma tropocollagen differences?
Amino acids: lysine and hydroxylysine
Enzyme: lysyl oxidase
What is the metal ion cofactor of the enzyme lysyl oxidase?
In what tissue does type II collagen appear?
What is the origin of the different types and numbers of alpha chains?
different genes
What are the two major components of a sub-epithelial basal lamina?
laminins and type IV collagen
What connects the basal lamina to the dermis and to the overlying basal epidermal cells?
Anchoring collagen fibrils (Type VII) to the dermis; integrin, laminin-5, and anchoring collagen fibril type XVII to the basal epidermal cells
What type of fiber is fibrillin?
an elastic fiber composed mostly of a rigid, calcium ion-binding domain with a few flexible domains
What stabilizes fibrillin in relaxed state?
its polypeptide is folded tightly on itself to form a beads on a string structure which is stabilized by calcium ions and other proteins
What stabilizes fibrillin in the extended state?
the tightly folded regions remain covalently attached under tension because of the glutamate-lysine cross-links mediated by the enzyme, transglutaminase
What is the precursor of elastin?
What is coacervation?
when tropoelastin accumulates on the fibrillin microfibers, the exposed hydrophobic domains undergo a major realignment so that they repel water.
What initiates/controls coacervation?
a small portion of polypeptide that's encoded by domain 26
What follows coacervation?
crosslinking of lysine by lysyl oxidase
What are the major tissues containing elastin?
artery walls and ligaments
Can osteogenesis imperfecta result from a single base mutation?
List 5 unique enzymes involved in the synthesis of a fibrous collagen.
2 hydroxylases: proline and lysine; 2 procollagen peptidases (N- and C- terminal); and lysine oxidase that binds to gaps in tropocollagen, also adds short glycan to hydroxylysine
What are the the 3 substrates of proline hydroxylase?
motif sequence containing pro (or lys) on procollagen, O2, and alpha-ketoglutarate
What are the 3 products of proline (or lys) hydroxylase?
HO-pro residue on procollagen, CO2, and succinate
What are the 2 cofactors of proline (or lys) hydroxylase?
ferrous ions and ascorbate (Vit C)
What does not cut all 3 polypeptides of a collagen triple helix simultaneously?
neutral gelatinase
What enzyme binds to most fibrillar procollagens, contains thrombospondin type I motifs, and has only one procollagen binding site on each of the 3 polypeptides?
Name 2 enzymes secreted by neutrophilic white blood cells to remove collagen fibers at a site of tissue damage?
neutral collagenase and neutral gelatinase
What cell is the source of 2 similar enzymes in an undamaged stromal matrix?
An astacin that completes tropocollagen formation after secretion. Name an enzyme that acts on collagen after secretion.
Mutations that inactivate this adamalysin cause some types of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.
Iron binds to oxygen in proline and lysine hydroxlases
zinc involved in metalloprotease catalysis to process procollagen and degrade collagen fibers
copper binds oxygen for lysyl oxidase activity
What metal ion is required for integrins to attach collagen?