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59 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Cell Body
The main part of a neuron
contains the nucleus
Dendrites
Small finger-like projections that bring electrical impulses to the cell body
Axon
Long projection taking impulses away from the cell body
Myelin
White fatty substance that surrounds sections of the axon
Schwann Cells
Cells that produce myelin
Found outside of the central nervous system
Nodes of Ranvier
Gaps between myelin
Allows electrical impulses to jump between gaps, allowing impulse to travel faster
Synapse
small gap between axons and dendrites
neurotransmitters are released into this gap to continue nerve impulse between cells
Neurotransmitters
Chemicals released into synapse to continue nerve impulse between cells
Astrocyte
support cells for neurons
Forms blood-brain barrier
Microglia
support cells for neurons
attacks invading microbes in the CNS
Oligodendrocyte
Support Cell for neurons
holds neurons close together
surrounds CNS neurons with myelin
Endoneurium
membrane that surrounds individual neurons
Perineurium
membrane that surrounds groups of neurons called fascicles
Epineurium
membrane that surrounds the outside of a nerve
afferent neurons
neurons that takes sensory info to your brain
efferent neurons
neurons that takes info away from your brain
towards muscles and glands
Brain Stem
lower posterior portion of the brain
contains medulla, pons, and midbrain
Medulla Oblongata
relay center between spinal cord and higher brain centers
controls cardiac, respiratory, and vasomotor centers
Pons
Part of the midbrain
relay center from spinal cord to higher brain areas
Helps with motor control and sensory perception
Midbrain
Part of the midbrain
relay center from spinal cord to higher brain ares
relay for visual and auditory impulses
Hypothalamus
In the diencephalon
controls body temp, water balance, sleep-cycles, appetite, emotions
Thalamus
In the diencephalon
helps produce sensations, associates sensations with emotions, helps in alerting mechanism
cerebellum
located in the posterior portion of the brain
controls muscle coordination, and equilibrium
Cerebrum
largest area of the brain
sensory perception, emotions, willed movements, consciousness, and memory
Ascending tracts
Nerves in spinal cord that are going towards your brain
Descending Tracts
Nerves in spinal cord that are going away from your brain
Meninges
Membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
Dura matter
tough outer layer of meninges
lines skull and vertebral column
Pia mater
inner layer of meninges
covers brain and spinal cord
arachnoid mater
middle layer of meninges
forms cobweb like structures between dura and pia mater
spaces are filled with cerebrospinal fluid
Cerebrospinal fluid
fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord
circulates nutrients and acts as a cushion for brain and spinal cord
sympathetic nervous system
turns on the fight or flight response
parasympathetic nervous system
turns off the fight or flight response
Fight-or-flight response
heart rate increases, blood vessels constrict, decrease peristalsis, relaxes bladder, dilates pupils, increases epinephrine
free nerve endings
nerve endings with no capsule around them
detects pain, crude touch, itch, tickle, temperature
encapsulated nerve endings
nerve endings with a capsule
detects fine touch, vibration, pressure, cold, muscle tension/length
sclera
tough white outer area of the eye
cornea
clear part of the sclera that covers the lens and iris
choroid
middle layer of the eye
dark layer to prevent light scattering
contains iris, and ciliary body
iris
muscle that gets bigger and smaller to let light in the eye
colored part of the eye
pupil
hole in the iris that gets bigger and smaller
ciliary body
muscle that changes the shape of the lens to focus at different distances
lens
the part of the eye that can change shape to focus light
retina
inner layer of the eye
contains photoreceptor cells to detect light
rods
photoreceptor cell that detects dim light
cones
photoreceptor cells used in bright light and detects colors
aqueous humor
thin fluid in anterior chamber of the eye
constantly formed and replaced
helps maintain shape of eye and refracts light
vitreous humor
thicker fluid in posterior chamber of the eye
helps maintain shape of the eye and refracts light
Auricle
visible outer portion of the ear
funnels sound waves into ear canal
Tympanic membrane
ear drum
vibrates when sound waves hit it
sends sound waves to ossicles
Auditory Ossicles
tiny bones in middle ear
amplifies and transmits sound waves to inner ear
Eustachian tube
tube that leads from middle ear to throat
often source of ear infections
cochlea
structure in inner ear that contains receptors for hearing
semi circular canals
structure in inner ear that contains receptors to detect motion/equilibrium
gustatory cells
cells that detects tastes
located on the sides of the papillae on your tongue
molecules must dissolve in saliva to be detected
papillae
bumps on your tongue that has the gustatory cells on the sides of them
Olfactory receptors
located at the top of the nasal cavity
molecules must be dissolved in mucous to be detected
Hearing
auricle --> ear canal --> eardrum --> ossicles --> cochlea --> hair-like structures vibrate --> creates electrical signal taken to brain by auditory nerve
How sense of balance works
Semicircular canals all point in different directions, as you move fluid inside each canal moves, moving hair-like structures inside, creates an electrical signal to send to your brain