Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Wada Test
technique to assess language lateralization, memory fxs; mult. cog. tasks presented during period of hemispheric anesthesia (used to i.d. critical areas before brain surgery, e.g.)
Wallerian degeneration
atrophy of distal portion of neurons after being severed from proximal portion
what is Wallerian degeneration typically due to? (3 types of events)
trauma, infarction, tumor infiltration
Watershed zones
Border zone of anastomoses that lies b/w territories of 2 major cerebral arteries. [anastomose: To unite by contact, e.g. 2 vessels at their extremities]
what is the main clinical significance of watershed zones?
a significant drop in blood pressure (e.g. w/ anoxia, carbon monoxide poisoning) will lead to drop in oxygenated blood supply where 2 arterial distributions overlap-- become infarcted
Name one type of syndrome that may result from watershed zone infarction
transcortical aphasia--lesions of watershed zones around the Broca-Wernicke language axis may isolate the area.
Where is Wernicke's area? What is the corresponding Brodmann's area?
the posterior one-third of the superior temporal gyrus; aka Brodmann's area 22
Wernicke's disease
acute phase of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome; signs include nystagmus, gaze paresis, ataxia, confusion, disorientation, apathy, amnesia
what is the etiology of Wernicke's disease/encephalopathy?
B1 (thiamine) deficiency 2ary chronic alcoholism or malnutrition
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
syndrome involving B1 deficiency; char. acutely by Wernicke's disease and chronically by Korsakoff's disease (anterograde amnesia, confabulation, orientation disturbance, suggestibility)
Common findings in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome after acute stage include:
normal IQ, ant.& retr. amnesia, amotivation, visual-perceptual and executive task difficulties, vulnerability to proactive interference
lesions commonly involved in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome include:
midbrain, cerebellum, mammillary bodies, thalamus; lesions in dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus thought to play 1ary role in anterograde amnesia
What is the name of the model describing the language-associated neural pathways with input/output fxs and interralationships with other cortical language areas, which helps to define aphasia subtypes?
Wernicke-Lichtheim model
West syndrome
encephalopathy of infancy; char. by mental retardation/arrested psychomotor dev., spasms, hypsarrhythmic EEG
white matter
myelin sheath covering axons that leads to white appearance of brain; as cell bodies are unmyelinated, regions dense with cell bodies appear gray (gray matter)
what subtest is often given as an indicator of premorbid level of ability?
WRAT reading subtest, as reading is felt to be relatively resistant to the effects of diffuse brain impairment
Williams syndrome
metabolic d/o (genetic) that leads to characteristic "elfin" facial features, supra valvular aortic stenosis, pronounced visual-spatial deficits, freq mild to mod. mental retardation.
Wilson's disease
genetic d/o (autosomal recessive); results from defect in copper metabolism; leads to movement d/o & hepatic insufficiency; initially presents w/ personality/mood changes, leads to dementia
abnormal affect assoc. w/ frontal lobe pathology--disinhibted, facetious and inappropriately euphoric
word attack
a reading strategy; string of letters is broken into segments before reading
word class effects
describes tendency of aphasia pts. to have diffential ability depending on the type of word; e.g. Broca's aphasics skip more connecting (function) words; in addition, people w/ reading d/o's have harder time with abstract than concrete nouuns
CSF discoloration due to presence of blood for 1+ day; assoc. w/ subarachnoid hemorrhage
XYY syndrome
chromosomal abormality; results from nondysjunction of sex chromosomes; leads to cerebral migrational abnormalities, maturational delays
the _________ law holds that performance is facilitated by mild anxiety, inhibited by anxiety beyond that; represented graphically as an inverted-U function
Yerkes-Dodson law