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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
T score
std score transformed to fit normal curve distibution; m = 50; SD = 10
tardive dyskinesia (TD)
nonreversible involuntary movement d/o; results from dopamine hypersensitivity after long-term tx w/ neuroleptics; freq. involve tongue, jaw, facial movements; risk increases w/ age and incr. dosage
task analysis
rehab procedure; a task's demands (physical, cog., social) are analyzed in order to determine the area of breakdown and to target an intervention
Tay-Sachs disease
genetic d/o (autosomal recessive) affects primarily children of Eastern European Jewish descent; initial signs--poor visual fixation, increased startle response after birth, followed by psychomotor delay, motor regression; usu. fatal by 3-5 yrs.
the cerebral hemispheres; the anterior of the two divisions of the prosencephalon
temporal gradient
higher likelihood of memory loss for events more proximal in time to neurological insult or disease; also present in normal aging
portion of the dura covering the posterior fossa; attached to the falx; separates the cerebellum from the occipital and temporal lobes
thalamic syndrome
combo. of superficial persistent hemianesthesia, mild hemiataxia, variable astereognosis, mild hemiplegia; severe pains in the hemiplegic side; choreo-athetoid movements in the limbs of paralyzed side
thalamic syndrome is aka...
Dejerine-Roussy syndrome
surgical treatment for Parkinson's disease; involves lesioning thalamus; disrupts overexcitation involved in many PD sx
nuclei involved particularly with sensory relay from cerebellum & basal ganglia projections to cerebral cortex
the thalamus forms part of the lateral wall of what area?
the third ventricle
lesions in the thalamus may produce what types of sx?
sensory deficits in particular, as well as possible aphasia, executive dysfx, memory impairment
thrombolytic therapy
acute tx of ischemic stroke; uses agents to dissolve clots that obstruct cerebral arteries; may decrease neurologic impairment if used promptly
thrombosis, cerebral
occlusion of a cerebral blood vessel by a clot of solidifed blood
where do thrombi usually occur?
at the site of a pre-existing stenosis of an artery
involuntary stereotyped movements; usu. resemble purposeful movements as they are coordinated, involve muscles that typically work synergistically; most often involve face/shoulder regions
Todd's paralysis
temporary postepileptic hemiplegia or monoplegia; post seizure; usu. lasts few minutes but up to 48 hrs poss.; nature of impairment varies by site of seizure activity in cortex
resection of a small area of cortex
top-of-the-basilar syndrome
condition resulting from emboli that pass through basilar artery and block thalamoperforant arteries; abnormalities result in visual, oculomotor, behavioral fxs, but not significantly in motor fxs; memory impairment also common, though not to same degree as with hippocampal infarction
toxic-metabolic encephalopathy
cond. assoc. w/ systemic d/o's of intoxication or metabolism; commonly charr. by altered mental status; freq. cause of confusion in elderly; commonly fluctuates w/ heightened sx in evening ("sundowning")
opportunistic infections that may be congenital or acquired (through contact with cat feces, or in association w/ AIDS, e.g.)
what are common NP and CT findings with toxoplasmosis?
confusion with generalized subacute encephalophathy, possible language impairment; CT image usually shows a ring-enhancing lesion usu. assoc. w/ brain abscesses
transient global amnesia (TGA)
sudden acute amnesia, typically benign & resolves in <24 hrs; may involve subcortical structures--ischemia or partial seizures, etiology is debated; involves disorientation, anterograde amnesia, dense retrograde amnesia that may extend back several months; often preceded by sudden body change (e.g. cold shower, strong emot. exp.)
transient ischemic attack (TIA)
focal neurological dysfx (e.g. hemiplegia) w/ rapid onset; attributable to blood vessel disease; resolves in <24 hrs; last ca. 5-10 minutes;possible harbinger of future CVA if untreated, as it indicates atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease.
two measures for assessing severity of a TBI are:
Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and duration of loss of consciousness (LOC)
TBIs with what GCS rating range, LOC duration are considered mild?
GCS = 13-15, LOC up to 20 minutes
What other criteria are expected if a TBI is categorized as mild?
No focal neurologic deficits; no focal radiologic evidence of injury; post-traumatic amnesia must be less than or equal to 24 hrs; also see post-concussion syndrome
What is the GCS rating range assoc. with moderate TBI?
GCS = 9-12
What is the GCS rating range assoc. with severe TBI?
GCS = 3=8
Name 4 tricyclics
amitriptyline, nortriptyline, doxepin, imipramine (MNEMONIC = ANDI)
What tricylic is sometimes used for OCD?
What is the special dietary restriction associatiated with tricyclics?
None. Trick question: many food are restricted with MAOI use to prevent hypertensive crisis
genetic abnormality; rather than a pair of chromosomes there are 3
Trisomy 21
see Down syndrome
tuberous sclerosis
congenital; sclerotic masses (scarring due to glial overgrowth) form in cerebral cortex, usu. resulting in MR and epilepsy; also results in adenoma sebaceum (nodules on face)
Turner's syndrome
chromosomal condition in females aka XO syndrome (one of X chromosomes is absent)
What are the medical & cognitive effects of Turner's syndrome?
IQ typically normal, short stature, infertility; no consensus on cog. effect though some mention social cognition issues
twilight state
temporary impaired consciousness; pt may act involuntairy w/o recalling; may be seen following anesthesia
two-route model
language processing theory; holds that there are 2 separate means of successful lang. production; reading--sound out vs. sight read; writing--spell phonetically vs. from memorized vocab
Type I error
say s.t. has an experimental effect when it really has none; i.e. reject null hypothesis when null hypothesis is correct
Type II error
say s.t. has no experimental effect when it does; i.e. retain null hypothesis when it should be rejected
Type I error and Type II error are aka:
alpha error and beta error, respectively
U fibers
short cortical fibers; they connect cortical gyri that are adjacent to e/o
identified bright object; refers to hyperintense white matter foci on MRIs (T2-weighted); may be due to white matter pallor, infarction, ischemia, plaques or other causes
ultrasound helps i.d. what in neurology? uses what type of technology?
reveals degree of vessel stenosis (and likelyl location of cerebrovascular disease) through Doppler technology
where is the uncus? and near what pole?
parahippocampal gyrus (anterior end); near temporal pole
the uncus is a landmark for whatt?
the lateral olfactory area
unilateral neglect
tendency to fail to attend to info. in the hemispace contralateral to lesion
unilateral neglect is usu. assoc. with lesions in which hemisphere?
upper motor neurons consitute the primary motor ________ pathway
trace the pathway of upper motor neurons: originate in the _____ ______; pass through the ______ _________; and descend the ______ _____ as the _______ tract
originate in the precentral gyrus; pass through the medullary pyramids; and descend the spinal cord as the corticospinal tract
upper motor neurons synapse with lower motor neurons where?
in the spinal cord, at which point LMNs carry info to the periphery
upper motor neuron lesions result in:
spastic hemiplegia or hemiparesis; hypertonicity
utilization behavior
inclination to handle objects w/in reach whether or not related to the task at hand
pts showing utilization bx appear complelled to use objects in front of them. this bx is associated with _______ lesions
bilateral frontal, especially inferior
utilization bx is a characteristic of _____________ syndrome
environmental dependency syndrome
vagus nerve stimulation
pacemaker-like device delivers electrical pulses; attached to the vagus nerve
which nerve is the vagus nerve?
the 10th nerve
vagus nerve stimulation is used to treat what condition?
medically refractory epilepsy
validity refers to what?
degree to which a measure can be used in supporting a specific inference
is validity a property of a test?
no. validity is tied the inferences a test is used to support.
measure's degree to which scores deviate from the mean.
the variance is the expected value of the ______ _______ b/w observations and the ________ of the distribution in the population.
squared difference; mean
How does one estimate the population variance in a sample?
1. Compute the sum of squared deviations around the sample mean. 2. Divide this sum by n-1, where n = the number of observations.
cerebral ventricles
CSF-filled cavities in the brain that form a continuous space (i.e. are interconnected).
The largest ventricles are the ________ ventricles, which are paired. They can be divided into the anterior horn in the _____ lobe, the posterior horn in the ______ lobe, and the inferior horn that extends into the _____ lobe.
frontal, occipital, temporal
The 3rd ventricle is located in the midline between the two halves of the ___________.
diencephalon (inferior part of forebrain, composed of thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus, lenticular nucleus)
The medial surface of the __________ forms most of the lateral wall of the 3rd ventricle
the thalamus
the 3rd ventricle connects to the 4th ventricle at the top of the ______________ via the __________
mesencephalon; cerebral aqueduct
ventriculostomy: an operation to treat _____________; establishes free communication between the floor of the _________ ventricle and the underlying _____________
hydrocephalus; 3rd; interpeduncular cistern
verbal code
the linguistic representation of a word
verbal fluency tests-- while lesions in temporal and frontal lobes can affect both semantic and phonemic fluency, lesions in the temporal lobe are more strongly correlated with ______ deficits, while FL lesions correlate with ______ deficits
temporal: semantic (category)
frontal: both semantic and phonemic (letter)
Alzheimer's may be associated with greater ________ than ______ fluency
AD: semantic may be worse than phonemic. AD disease begins in middle region of brain before progressing anteriorly; in general temporal lobe deteriorates before frontal.
ability to monitor over extended periods of time despite infrequent target stimuli
refers to "sticky" interpersonal style; speech is repetitive, circumstantial, and prolonged
visual field defects
within a visual field, refers to areas of altered/diminished/absent vision
Besides lesions in the retina, visual field defects can result from lesions in 4 areas:
Optic nerve/tract, lateral Geniculate body, Geniculocalcarine pathway, Striate cortex (MNEMONIC: "GOGS", short for GOGgleS)
vitamine deficiency disorders typically involve those from the ______ group of vitamins
Wernicke-Korsakoff's syndrome results from lack of vitamin ____ aka _____
B1; thiamine
Vitamin B12 deficiency may lead to ______ lesions, and may be associated with these sx:
white matter; mood disturbance, dementia, psychosis