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88 Cards in this Set

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Hachinski Ischemia Scale
A scale for assessing risk factors, clinical signs, and historical variables associated with cerebrovascular disease
Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome
Rare hereditary (autosomal recessive)degenerative disorder characterized by marked reduction in myelin sheath in globus pallidus and substantia nigra leading to accumulation of iron pigment, leg rigidity, choreoathetoid movements, dysarthria, and progressive emotional and mental deterioration, dementia, visual spatial impairments. Most die before 30.
Halstead Category Test
Test originally developed as a measure of frontal lobe function, but sensitive to a variety of lesions and deficits. Test of abstraction and visual problem solving requiring subject to determine correct principle and use corrective feedback. Final subtest taps memory for previously presented items.
Halstead Impairment Index
This is a cut off score or summary value with 0.5 or higher suggestive of brain impairment. Strong psychometric concerns with the use of the index alone - not advisable.
Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery (HRNB)
A battery of tests developed to detect brain injury. Halstead collected the tests, Reitan standardized the battery. Very important in the history of Npsych.
Hamartoma
abnormal tissue resembles a neoplasm but no abnormal growth rate
Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression
measure of depression filled out by observer or interviewer
Handedness
preference for one hand over other - indirect measure of cerebral language dominance
Handicap
WHO definitions important for rehab psychologists - handicap occurs when a disability prevents fulfillment of expected social roles
Haptic Intelligence Scale for adult blind (HIS)
nonverbal intelligence test- modified Wechsler PIQ subtests plus additional subtests for blind individuals.
Head Injury
Nonspecific term. Better to include more specific terms - mild, moderate, severe, open, closed
Heavy Metal Poisoning
Too much Ozzy listening. Just kidding - making sure you are paying attention. Real answer is poisoning from metals - lead is a frequent culprit - especially in children.
Hebb's Recurring Digit Test
Learning task using repeated digit sequences to assess how quickly patient can learn - similar to Corsi block tapping test.
Hemangioma
vascular malformation that resembles a neoplasm - also called cavernous angioma
Hematoma
circumscribed or localized area of blood vessel leakage or bleeding.
Hematoma Epidural
collection of blood between skull and dura. Common in skull fractures. Rapidly expand and very dangerous need acute surgical attention. On CT remember that Epidural pushes out- classic lens shape look
Hematoma Subdural
collection of blood in subdural space - between dura and arachnoid. Laceration of cortical blood vessels. Can be acute in severe injury, but usually slowly develops over days. On CT remember that Subdural "spreads slowly" with the classic crescent moon look.
Hematoma Subdural - Chronic
seen in elderly patients - brain atrophy allows brain to move more freely in cranial vault and bridging veins more susceptible to injury - slow onset of symptoms - headache, cog impairment, gait problems
Hematoma Subdural - Acute
Requires a serious injury to generate enough force to rupture the veins
Hematoma - Intracerebral
collection of blood within the brain - typically seen in injury to deep blood vessels - missle wounds, depressed skull fractures
Hemiakinesia
failure to use extremity contralateral to brain lesion but not due to primary motor deficit - often seen as part of neglect syndrome in right sided brain injury
Hemialexia
Inability to read in left visual field due to a corpus callosum lesion or visual neglect
Hemianopia or Hemianopsia
loss of vision for one half of visual field in one or both eyes
Hemiplegia
paralysis of one side of the body caused by brain injury - arm usually weaker than leg
Hemispatial inattention or Hemispatial Neglect
milder form of neglect of stimuli contralateral to brain lesion
Hemispherectomy
surgical removal of diseased hemisphere. Functional approach is commissurotomy and sparing of frontal and occipital poles
Hemispheric Asymmetry
Hemispheric specialization. Brain features both functional (language - left, visual/spatial - right) and structural (left larger planum temporale, right more white matter)asymmetry
Hemorrhage
Bleeding from vessel leakage or rupture
Hemorrhage - Cerebral
AKA
Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Hypertensive Hemorrhage
Parenchymal Hemorrhage
Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage
Bleeding within the hemispheres, brainstem, cerebellum or spinal cord. TBI or nontraumatic causes - hypertension, brain tumors, vascular issues,
Hemorrhage Subdural
typically traumatic in origin - bleeding of cerebral veins entering superior sagittal sinus are broken
Hemorrhage- Subarachnoid
bleeding in the CSF filled space between arachnoid and pia. Spontaneous/Nontraumatic - usually associated with aneurysm - severe headache. Traumatic is more common - TBI
Hemorrhage - Intraventricular (IVH)also called
Periventricular Hemorrhage (PVH)
Common in prematurity - bleeding inside or around the ventricles.
Grade 1 - bleeding occurs just in a small area of the ventricles.
Grade 2 - bleeding also occurs inside the ventricles.
Grade 3 - ventricles are enlarged by the blood.
Grade 4 - bleeding into the brain tissues around the ventricles.
Hemosiderin
protein residual of breakdown of blood Deposits form in locations of prior bleeding and can cause CNS dysfunction "siderosis"
Herniation of the Brain
abnormal protrusion of brain due to increased ICP. 2 types - Tonsilar - protrusion through foramen magnum (can be fatal as pressure is placed on medulla). Transtentorial - downward displacement through tentorial notch
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis
Viral brain infection- common cause of encephalitis. Impacts frontal and temporal lobes - memory impairment and seizures. Generally 1-2 week course
Heschl's Gyrus
primary auditory cortex/ inferior portion of sylvian fissure/ Brodmann 41, 42
Heterophone
word with 2 alternative pronunciations "read"
Heterotopia
neuromigrational disorder - neurons fail to migrate to expected locations. frequent mental retardation and developmental disorders
Heterotopic Ossification
abnormal bone growth into joint spaces of arms and legs - occurs frequently after TBI
Hindbrain or Rhombencephalon
pons, cerebellum,(metencephalon) medulla (myelencephalon)
Hippocampus
Part of limbic system - medial aspects of temporal lobe. Memory and learning functions, common seizure focus
Hiscock-Hiscock Forced Choice Recognition Task
forced choice digit recognition task designed to detect malingering
H.M.
famous patient of Scoville. H.M. suffered from declarative memory deficit and anterograde amnesia after bilateral medial temporal lobectomy
Hoffmann sign
hyperreflexive response indicative of potential upper motor neuron disease elicited by flicking third fingernail downward- the sign is present if thumb flexes and adducts in response
Hold vs No Hold Tests
Classic npsych term referring to tests thought to be resistant (hold) to brain injury such as vocabulary and those that are more sensitive (no hold) to brain pathology - digit symbol
Holoprosencephaly
neuromigrational disorder - 2 hemispheres form a single mass - craniofacial abnormalities and severe mental retardation
Homonymous
same effect on both sides
Homonymous Hemianopsia
analagous right or left half visual field cuts
Homophone
word having same pronunciation as another word but different spelling and meaning (sale sail)
Homonculus
representation of pre or post central gyrus sensory or motor functions depicted by drawing the associated parts of the body near their associated cortical region
Hooper Visual Organization Test
test of visual perceptual skills - requires patient to identify common objects from drawings that have been cut up
Hoover's sign
supine patient lifts nonparetic leg - normally downward movement in other leg - absence of this movement is positive Hoover's sign - suggests malingering
Horner's Syndrome
ptosis (eyelid drooping), miosis (pupil constriction), facial dryness (anhidrosis) - produced when sympathetic innervation to the eye is interrupted.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
a retrovirus that attacks selected cells of immune, nervous and other systems
HIV can interrupt brain development, - may see cerbral atrophy, enlarged ventricles, microcephaly, worsening cognitive abilities over.May differentially impact subcortical and frontostriatal systems - white matter & deep gray structures.
Huntington's Disease
autosomal dominant disorder - basal ganglia lesions lead to dementia, chorea, psychiatric symptoms. Behavioral symptoms can precede movement problems
Hydrocephalus
abnormal increase in CSF marked by dilitation of cerebral ventricles. Can occur via excess CSF production, obstructed CSF flow, descrease in CSF absorption
Hydrocephalus - Communicating
generally refers to situations in which there is no obstruction of ventricular system - can be due to impaired reabsorption or obstructions in the subarachnoid space - meningitis. Rarely but can be caused by excess CSF production
Hydrocephalus - Noncommunicating
obstruction of flow within ventricular system - tumors, hemorrhage, malformations
Hydrocephalus Ex Vacuo
enlargement of ventricles as cerebral tissue atrophies - normal aging and conditions leading to tissue loss - stroke, TBI, etc.
Hydrocephalus - Normal Pressure
chronically dilated ventricles - seen in elderly - normal or intermittent ICP elevation. Clinical triad of gait difficulties, urinary incontinence, and mental decline
Hydrocephalus - Symptoms & Signs
Headache, Nausea, Vomiting, Papilledema, eye movement problems. Npsych - visual spatial motor, pragamatic language,iq deficits, NLD presentation.
Hyperacusis
abnormally acute hearing - Bell's palsy - William's Syndrome
Hyperesthesia
increased sensitivity to sensory stimuli
Hypergraphia
compulsion to write excessively
compulsion to write excessively
compulsion to write excessively
often with details of personal history
Hyperlexia
above average reading ability - autism, mr - reading without understanding of meaning
Hypermetria
Voluntary movements overreach intended target
Hyperreflexia
excessive activity of tendon reflexes associated with upper motor neuron diseases loss of corticospinal tract inhibition
Hypertelorism
abnormally large distance between the eyes
Hypertension
elevated blood pressure - increased risk for vascular disorders that can impact CNS
Hypertensive Encephalopathy
acute rather than chronic hypertension that can lead to cerebral edema and punctate hemorrhages and realted headache, vomiting, visual disturbance, seizures or coma
Hyperthyroidism or
Grave's disease
excessive thryoid activity leads to emotional lability, anxiety, euphoria
Hypertrophy
enlargement in tissue not due to tumor formation
Hypesthesia
decreased sensitivity to stimulation
Hypochondriasis
excessive anxiety and fear about illness
Hypoglycemia
diminished blood glucose that may lead to headache, hypothermia, confusion, hallucination, seizures or coma
Hyperkinesis
excessive motor overactivity
Hypokinesis
abnormally diminished motor activity
Hypometria
abnormally small movements often associated with parkinson's disease
Hypophonia
low volume speech - weak voice
Hyporeflexia
depressed tendon reflexes suggestive of lower motor neuron disease
Hyposmia
abnormally decreased sensitivity to smell
Hypotelorism
abnormal closeness of the eyes
Hypotension
abnormally low blood pressure
Hypothalamus
part of diencephalon - hypothalamic nuclei integrate and regulate autonmonic functions, endocrine and pituitary activity, body temperature, food intake.
Hypothermia
low body temperature
Hypothyroidism
decreased or absent thyroid hormone. Can resemble dementia but with greater lethargy. Also see ataxia, dysarthria, and nystagmus.
Hypotonia
absent or decreased muscle tone
Hypoxia
moderate decrease in oxygen supply to tissue. Results from circulatory problems or red blood cell deficiencies (anemia, CO2 poisoning). Impacts hippocampal regions - frequent anterograde amnesia