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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what are the psychic strucgtures?
Id, superego, ego
Id
something that we are born
with (drive/instinct). The
reason why we don’t act on
our instincts is because we
live in a society that has set
morals and ethics and we
know the difference between “right and wrong”. As
we develop and get
older we get values anf morals from our parents, they teach us what is right and wrong and this is how we get the superego.
superego
our concious--> tells us what is right and wrong.
ego
keeps a balance between the Id and superego. it it our defense mechanism, our jusgement relation to reality.
what are defense mechanisms?
are the ego's way of keeping away anxiety and to control spontaneous and unpleasant emotions--actinglike a "shield". they are occuring subconciously so we don't know that we are doing these thuings (except for supression-conciousness defense mechanisms), they are discrete, dyanmic and irriversable, and adaptive and maladaptive.
projection
giving off your own wishes, thought and feelsing onto someone else (e.g- if someone is being unfaithful to his wife, and accses her of infedilty)
denial
used to avoid becoming aware of some painful aspect of reality, something has happened but you are refusing to believe it happened.
splitting
external objects are divided in all good or all bad. this is often seen in borderline personality disorder.
blocking
temoporary defense mechanism, and usually due to stress.
regression
returing to earlier state in development, usually triggered by some stressful event. it is diffrent between children and adults.
somatization
when psyhcic toughts are converted into bodily symtpoms, the patient's brain convinces them that there is something wrong with them physically- somatoform disorders
introjection
features of the external world are taken and made part of the person. Identifying with some idea or object so deeply that it becomes a part of that person.
displacement
an emotion or drive is shifted towards another that resembles the orignial in some aspect or quality-(mad at boss, taking it out on husband)
repression
an idea or feeoling is withheld from conciousness aka unconciousness forgetting (e.g-sexual abuse during childhood is completely forgotten, patient does not know he has been sexually abused)
supression
is when you conciously chose not to remeber something that happened to you-you would rather just forget.
intelectualization
A form of isolation; concentrating on the intellectual components of a situation so as to distance oneself from the associated anxiety-provoking emotions; separation of emotion from ideas; thinking about wishes in formal, affectively bland terms and not acting on them; avoiding unacceptable emotions by focusing on the intellectual aspects (e.g. isolation, rationalization, ritual, undoing, compensation, magical thinking).
isolation
separation of an idea from the affect that follows it--> patient is sad but will not show any emotions on his face, they will talk about it without showing any emotions.
rationalization
rational explanations are used to justify unacceptable attidues, beliefes or behaviors
reaction formation
Converting unconscious wishes or impulses that are perceived to be dangerous into their opposites; behaviour that is completely the opposite of what one really wants or feels; taking the opposite belief because the true belief causes anxiety. This defence can work effectively for coping in the short term, but will eventually break down.
Regression: Temporary reversion of the ego to an earlier stage of development rather than handling unacceptable impulses in a more adult way.
undoing
A person tries to 'undo' an unhealthy, destructive or otherwise threatening thought by engaging in contrary behaviour.
acting out
Direct expression of an unconscious wish or impulse in action, without conscious awareness of the emotion that drives that expressive behaviour.
humor
Overt expression of ideas and feelings (especially those that are unpleasant to focus on or too terrible to talk about) that gives pleasure to others. The thoughts retain a portion of their innate distress, but they are "skirted round" by witticism.
sublimation
Transformation of negative emotions or instincts into positive actions, behaviour, or emotion.
Altruism
Constructive service to others that brings pleasure and personal satisfaction.
סיווג מנגנוני ההגנה
נהוג להבחין בין מגננוני הגנה ראשוניים ("פרימיטיביים"), המגנים על הגבולות שבין העצמי לבין העולם החיצוני, לבין מנגנוני הגנה משניים ("בוגרים" או "גבוהים") המגנים על גבולות פנימיים, כגון למשל בין האגו לסופראגו ובין האגו לאיד. מנגנוני ההגנה הפרימיטיביים פועלים באופן גלובלי ובלתי ממוקד והם משפיעים על אספקטים קוגניטיביים, רגשיים והתנהגותיים של האדם. לעומתם, מנגנוני ההגנה הבוגרים פועלים באופן ספציפי על מחשבה, רגש, תחושה, התנהגות, או על שילוב של כמה מאלה. הגנות פרימיטיביות אינן מתחשבות בעקרון המציאות ואף לא בנפרדותם של אורגניזמים מחוץ לעצמי. כך, למשל, מנגנון ההדחקה נחשב "גבוה" או "בוגר" יותר ממנגנון ההכחשה: על מנת להדחיק עובדה או רגש, עלינו ראשית להכיר בהם ברמה כלשהי של המודעות ואז להגלותם אל התת-מודע; כשאנו מכחישים, לעומת זאת, אנו מבצעים תהליך מיידי, לא רציונלי. האמירה "זה לא קורה" נחשבת לפיכך כבוגרת פחות מן האמירה "זה קורה, אבל אני אשכח את זה כי הידיעה מכאיבה מדי". חשוב לציין כי בכולנו נמצאים שרידים של מנגנוני הגנה ראשוניים וכי קיומם נחשב לפתולוגי רק בהיעדרן של אסטרטגיות נוספות, בוגרות יותר, להתמודדות עם המציאות או כאשר ההגנות הפרימיטיביות נכנסות לשימוש באופן אוטומטי ובלעדי.
primitive mechanism
regression, denial, splitting,
adult defense mechanism
rationalization, intelctualization, supression, sublimation