Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/34

Click to flip

34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Situs and Cardiac Malpositions

Situs Solitas
Normal all structures are concordant
Situs and Cardiac Malpositions

Situs Solitas with Dextrocardia
Cardiac Apex on the Right with stomach bubble on the Left
caused by failure of rotation of the embryonic cardiac loop

Scimitar Syndrome is dextrocardia, hypoplastic right lung
and partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage into the vena cava
Situs and Cardiac Malpositions

Levoconversion with Abdominal situs Inversus
incidence with congenital heart disease 100%
Situs and Cardiac Malpositions

Situs Ambiguus with bilateral right sidedness

ASPLENIA SYNDROME
absent spleen, bilateral trilobed lung, right and left lobes of the liver are of similar size
Situs and Cardiac Malpositions

Situs Ambiguus with bilateral left sidedness

POLYSPLENIA SYNDROME
bilateral bilobed lungs, absent hepatic segment of IVC and enlarged azygous, hemiazygous veins. Intracardiac anomalies
Gross Cardiac Enlargement
Multiple Valvular Disease
Pericardial Effusion
ASD (with pulmonary plethora of Eisenmenger)
Cardiomyopathy
Ebsteins Anomaly (posterior orseptal cusp of the tricuspid valve arises distally from the wall of the right ventricle. Marked tricuspid incompetence. Marked right atrioventricular enlargement. Small aorta, oligeamic lungs, sharp cardia outline
Small Heart
Normal Variant
Emphysema
Addison's Disease
Dehydration/Malnutrition
Constrictive Pericarditis
Enlarged Right Atrium

Volume Overload

Pa prominent right heart border
lateral prominent anterosuperior part of the cardiac shadow
ASD
AV canal
Tricuspid incompetence
anomalous pulmonary venous drainage
Enlarged Right Atrium

Pressure Overload
Tricuspid Stenosis (NB tricuspid atrsia a shunt must excist atrial size is preserved)
Myxoma of the Right atrium
Enlarged Right Atrium

Secondary to right ventricular failure
See question for answer
Enlarged Right Ventricle

PA prominent left haert border
Lateral Prominent anterior part of the cardiac shadow

Secondary to Left heart failure/mitral valve disease
See question
Enlarged Right Ventricle

Pulmonary artery Hypertension
Diffuse lung disease
Pulmonary embolism
chronic left to right shunt
vasculitis (polyarteritis nodosa)
Idiopathic
Enlarged Right Ventricle

Pressure Overload
Pulmonary stenosis
Enlarged Right Ventricle

Volume Overload
ASD
VSD
Enlarged Left Atrium

Pa Prominentleft atrial appendage
Double right heart border
Increased density due to left atrium
Splaying of the Carina and Elevated Left haert border

Lateral Prominent posterior part of the cardiac shadow
Prominent left atrial imprsession on the esophagus during barium swallow

Volume Overload
Mitral Incompetence
VSD
PDA
ASD (with shunt reversal Eisenmenger or Tricuspid atresia)
Enlarged Left Atrium

Pressure Overload
Mitral Stenosis
Myxoma of the Left Atrium
Enlarged Left Atrium
Secodary to Left Ventricular failue
See Question
Enlarged Left Ventricle

PA Prominent left heart border
Rounding of the left heart border
Apex displaced inferiorly
Lateral Prominent posteroinferior part of the cardiac shadow
MYOCARDIAL
Ischemia
Cardiomyopathy/myocarditis

VOLUME OVERLOAD
Aortic Incompetence
Mitral Incompetence
VSD
PDA

HIGH OUTPUT STATE
Anemia
HPT
Paget's
AV fistula

PRESSURE OVERLOAD (Dilation is end stage)
Aortic Stenosis
Hypertension
Coarctation of the Aorta
Bulge on the Left Heart Border
Enlarged left atrial appendage
ventricular aneurysm
pericardial cyst
Myocardial mass (neoplasm, hytatid
Coronary Artery Aneurysm
Cardiac Calcification
PERICARDIAL
Post pericarditis
Post traumatic/operative
Uraemia
Asbestos
Coronary Artery

MYOCARDIAL
Calcified infarct
Aneurysm
Post myocarditis (Rheumatic Fever)
Hydatid

INTRACARDIAC
Calcified Valve
Calcified Thrombus
Atrial Myxoma
Valve Calcification
AORTIC VALVE
Bicuspid aortic valve
Rheumatic heart disaese
Ageing
Syphilis
Ank Spon

MITRAL VALVE
Rheumatic Heart Disease

PULMONARY VALVE
Valve Stenosis
Tetralogy
Pulmonary Hypertension

TRICUSPID VALVE
Pulmonary Valve Stenosis
ASD
Isolated tricuspid regurgitation
Large Aortic Arch
Unfolded aorta
Hypertension
Aortic Incompetence
Aortic Stenosis
Aneurysm
PDA
Small Aortic Arch
Decreased cardiac output
Intracardiac left to right shunt
Coarctation (infantile type)
Trasposition (rotated but not small
Right Sided Aortic Arch
Three Types
MIRROR IMAGE BRANCHING 98% incidence of congenital heart disease)
Dextrocardia with situs inversus
Tetralogy
Pulmonary Atresia with VSD

Type II (rare)

Type III
RIGHT SIDED AORTIC ARCH WITH ABERRANT LEFT SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY
Tetralogy 70%
VSD 20%
Coarctation 10%
Enlarged Superior Vena Cava
VOLUME OVERLOAD
Tricuspid Incompetence
TAPVD

OBSTRUCTION
Ca Bronchus
Mediastinal Mass
Mediastinal Fibrosis
Constrictive Pericarditis
Enlarged Azygous Vein
Haert Failure
Portal Hypertension
SVA or IVC obstruction
Pregnancy
Constrictive Pericarditis

DDX
Sinus Venosus Defect right upper middle lobe pulmonary veins drain into SVC
Enlarged Pulmonary Arteries
VOLUME OVERLOAD (enlarged central and peripheral vessels)

L-R shunt
Hyperdynamic circulation (thyrotoxicosis etc)

PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL VASOCONSTRICTION (enlarged central vessels)
Hypoxia
Secondary to pulmonary venous hypertension
Seconadry to L-R shunts

PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL OBLITERATION (enlarged central vessels)
Secondary to L-R shunts
Thromboemboloc Disease PE/Tumor
Schistosomiasis
Vasculitis
Idiopathic pulnmonary hypertension
Enlarge Pulmonary Veins
Left Ventricular Failure
Obsrtruction at mital or atrial level
mitral stenosis
left artrial myxoma
Balll valve thrombus

Obstruction Proximal to the Atrium
TAPVD
Constrictive pericarditis
Mediastinal Fibrosis
Neonatal Pulmonary Venouus Congestion

1st Week

Prominent interstitial amrkings
indistict vessels
perihilar haze
pleural effusions
cardiomegaly
Overhydration
Aspyxia
hypoplastic left heart
critical aortic stenosis
TAPVD 9obstructe)
Neonatal Pulmonary Venouus Congestion

2nd and 3rd Week
coarctation of the aorta
interrupted aortic arch
Neonatal Pulmonary Venouus Congestion

4th-6th Week
coarctation
critical aortic stenosis
Neonatal Cyanosis

With Venous plethora
TGA
Truncus Arteriosis
TAPVD
Single Ventricle
Neonatal Cyanosis

With Oligemia and cardiomegaly
Pulmonary stenosis
Ebstein's anomaly
Tricuspid Atresia
Neonatal Cyanosis

With Oligemia but no cardiomegaly
Tetralogy
Pulmonary atrsia with vsd
tricuspid atresia