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24 Cards in this Set

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Normalization Definition
Used to identify relations based on keys and functional dependencies.
Normalization Characteristics
-minimal number of attributes necessary to support the data requirements of the enterprise;
-attributes with a close logical relationship are found in the same relation;
-minimal redundancy with each attribute represented only once with the important exception of attributes that form all or part of foreign keys.
Normalization Benefits
-easier for the user to access and maintain the data;
-take up minimal storage space on the computer.
*minimize data redundancy eliminating update anomolies
Update Anomolies
Relations with potential data redundancy problems that could lead to insertion, deletion, and modification anomalies.
Loss-less Join and Dependency Properties
-Lossless-join property enables us to find any instance of the original relation from corresponding instances in the smaller relations.
-Dependency preservation property enables us to enforce a constraint on the original relation by enforcing some constraint on each of the smaller relations.
Functional Dependencies
-Describes relationship between attributes.
-if A and B are attributes of relation R, B is functionally dependent on A (denoted A -> B), if each value of A in R is associated with exactly one value of B in R.
Determinant of a functional dependency
-refers to the attribute or group of attributes on the left-hand side of the arrow.
Full Functional Dependency
-Determinants should have the minimal number of attributes necessary to maintain the functional dependency with the attribute(s) on the right hand-side.
-Full functional dependency indicates that if A and B are attributes of a relation, B is fully functionally dependent on A, if B is functionally dependent on A, but not on any proper subset of A.
Normalization Functional Dependencies
-There is a one-to-one relationship between the attribute(s) on the left-hand side (determinant) and those on the right-hand side of a functional dependency.
-Holds for all time.
-The determinant has the minimal number of attributes necessary to maintain the dependency with the attribute(s) on the right hand-side.
Transitive Dependency
_Describes a condition where A, B, and C are attributes of a relation such that if A → B and B → C, then C is transitively dependent on A via B (provided that A is not functionally dependent on B or C).
-Potential source for update anomolies
Process of Normalization
-Formal technique for analyzing a relation based on its primary key and the functional dependencies between the attributes of that relation.

-Each step corresponds to a specific normal form, which has known properties.
Purpose in identifying functional dependencies for a relation
-To specify the set of integrity constraints that must hold on a relation.

-An important integrity constraint to consider first is the identification of candidate keys, one of which is selected to be the primary key for the relation.
As normalization proceeds
-Relations become progressively more restricted (stronger) in format and also less vulnerable to update anomalies.
Unnormalized Form (UNF)
A table that contains one or more repeating groups.
First Normal Form (1NF)
A relation in which the intersection of each row and column contains one and only one value.
UNF to 1NF
-Nominate an attribute or group of attributes to act as the key for the unnormalized table.

-Identify the repeating group(s) in the unnormalized table which repeats for the key attribute(s).
-Remove the repeating group
Remove the repeating group; UNF to 1NF
-Entering appropriate data into the empty columns of rows containing the repeating data (‘flattening’ the table).
Or by
-Placing the repeating data along with a copy of the original key attribute(s) into a separate relation.
Second Normal Form (2NF)
-Based on the concept of full functional dependency.

-Full functional dependency indicates that if A and B are attributes of a relation, B is fully dependent on A if B is functionally dependent on A but not on any proper subset of A.
-A relation that is in 1NF and every non-primary-key attribute is fully functionally dependent on the primary key.
1NF to 2NF
-Identify the primary key for the 1NF relation.

-Identify the functional dependencies in the relation.

-If partial dependencies exist on the primary key remove them by placing then in a new relation along with a copy of their determinant.
Third Normal Form (3NF)
-Based on the concept of transitive dependency.

-Transitive Dependency is a condition where
A, B and C are attributes of a relation such that if A -> B and B -> C,
then C is transitively dependent on A through B. (Provided that A is not functionally dependent on B or C).
Third Normal Form (3NF)
A relation that is in 1NF and 2NF and in which no non-primary-key attribute is transitively dependent on the primary key.
2NF to 3NF
-Identify the primary key in the 2NF relation.

-Identify functional dependencies in the relation.

-If transitive dependencies exist on the primary key remove them by placing them in a new relation along with a copy of their dominant.
Second normal form (2NF)
A relation that is in first normal form and every non-primary-key attribute is fully functionally dependent on any candidate key.
Third normal form (3NF)
A relation that is in first and second normal form and in which no non-primary-key attribute is transitively dependent on any candidate key.