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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Endocrine glands release their hormones _____________________.

(Differentiate from exocrine)
directly into the blood.
Exocrine glands relase their hormones _____________________.

(Differentiate from endocrine)
into ducts.
Hormones that can pass through cell membranes and reach receptors inside target cells are
steroid hormones.

(Broader spectrum)
Hormones that bind only to specific receptors on the outside of target cells are
protein hormones.

(More specific targets, uses cyclic AMP as messenger inside the cell)
The two main systems that are responsible for maintaining homeostasis are
the nervous system and the endocrine system.
The ________ pituitary stores and releases hormones that are produced in the hypothalamus.
The ________ pituitary produces 5 main hormones that help control the other or endocrine glands and one broad spectrum hormone.
The hormone responsible for utirine contractions or the "let down" of milk for breastfeeding is
The action of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) is
to increase the re absorption of water by the kidney and therefore decrease urine output.
Diabetes Insipitus is characterized by
too little ADH and therefore very urine volume.
The hormone that stimulates growth and cellular reproduction in humans is
HGH or human growth hormone.
The hormone that stimulates the mammary glands to produce milk is
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) in females is responsible for
the maturation of follicle cells and eggs in the ovaries.
The hormone responsible for stimulating sertoli cells in males and therefore increasing sperm production is
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone).
The hormone most directly responsible for ovulation in females is
LH (Luteinizing hormone).
LH (luteinizing hormone) in males is responsible for stimulating
testosterone production from lydig cells (interstitial cells) in the testicles.
The hormone that targets the thyroid is
TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone)
ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone) targets the
cortex of the arenal glands.
Give three human problems that result from improper levels of HGH.
Too little in children leads to dwarfism.
Too much in children leads to giantism.
Too much as an adult leads to acromegaly.
The main hormone responsible for regulating metabolism is
thyroxine (T4).
Too little idoine in the blood will cause
too little thyroxine to be created and will lead to goiter (swollen thyroid gland).
This hormone will cause calicum to be removed from the blood and stored in bone tissue

(Created in the thyroid gland).
Too little thyroxine in the blood will cause the _______ gland to release ________ which will target the _________ gland to release more thyroxine.


PTH (parathormone) is released by the parathyroid glands and causes
calcium to be released into the blood system (from bones, and also increase absoption in kidneys or food.)
Symptoms of hypothyroidism include
Weight gain
Coarse, dry hair
Cold intolerance
Decreased libido
Symptoms of hyperthyroidism include
Heat intolerance
Weight loss
Warm moist skin (myxedema)
Staring gaze
Goiter has virtually been eliminated from developed countries by
iodizing salt.
Which part of the pancreas secretes insulin?
The Islets of Langerhans (beta cells)
Which part of the pancreas secretes glucagon?
The Islets of Langerhans (alpha cells)
Which hormone is released as a result of increased blood sugar levels?
Glucose is stored as ___________ in the liver.
When blood sugar levels drop below normal levels this hormone is released.
Diabetes Mellitus is
too little insulin production.
Type 1 diabetes can be managed by
blood sugar monitoring and insulin injections.
Type 2 diabetes can be managed by
diet and oral medication.
Common symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus include
Short term effects :

High urine volume
Increased thirst

Long term effects:
eye, kidney, heart problems
trouble with ulcers and feeling in your extremities
glucose in urine
acetone breath
Hypoglycaemia is
too little blood sugar.
Other treatments for Type 1 diabetes other than insulin injections include
The pump or Islet transplants.
In times of stress, which endocrine gland is targeted by both the NS system and the endocrine system?
The adrenal gland.
The cotex of the adrenal gland when targeted by _______, will release ___________.

Cortisol, and Aldosterone.
When released during times of stress, cortisol in the blood
increases blood pressure and blood sugar levels and suppresses the immune system.
When aldosterone is released into the blood it
increases Na+ re-absorption in the kidney, and therefore water follows Na+ back into blood and
keeps blood fluid high.
epinephrin or adrenalin when released into the blood
increases heart rate and stroke volume, dilates the pupils, and constricts arterioles in the skin and gut while dilating arterioles in leg muscles.

Generally gets the body ready for a fight or fligh response.
pituitary gland
The gland labeled "2" is the
Diabetes Mellitus.
If gland "7" was removed or impaired, what condition would result?
Glands 3 (thyroid) and 4 (Parathyroid)
Which glands are most involved in blood calcium balance?
side 1, the side that regulates hypothalamus secretions.
The posterior pituitary is labeled here as