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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
all chemical reactions in the body
acquiring food
processing food into a form that the body can use
circulation of products that nourish tissues and the removal of waste products
building new tissues in the body with digested food
ability to maintain homeostasis
body's response to a stimulus (a part of regulation)
increase in size
plants convert CO2 and H2O to carbohydrates
What are living things primarily composed of? (6)
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorous
Unit of an element?
Unit of a compound?
What are inorganic compounds?
do not contain carbon and include salts and HCl
What do organic compounds include? (4)
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
What are carbohydrates composed of and in what ratio?
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

What are three types of carbohydrates the DAT will require you to recognize?
Monosaccharide, disaccharide and plysaccharide
What is protpasm?
The substance of life
What stores energy in animals?
glucose and glycogen
What stores energy in plants?
What is a monosaccharide?
contain sungle sugar subunits
What is a disaccharide?
composed of two monosaccharides
How are monosaccharides joined to make a disaccharide?
dehydration synthesis
What is a polysaccharide?
a chain of repeating monosaccharide subunits
What is a polymer?
a chain of molecules or monomers
Give four examples of a monosaccharide:
fructose, glucose, galactose, mannose
Give two examples of a disaccharide:
glucose, maltose
Give two examples of a polysaccharide:
starch and glycogen
What is the primary difference between glycogen and starch?
Glycogen is a glucose polymer bonded by beta bonds while starch is bonded by alpha bonds.
What is hydrolysis?
The process of breaking down a large polymer by adding water (because the subunits were joined through dehydration synthesis)
How does the composition of a lipid vary from that of a carbohydrate with respect to H and O?
Lipids have a much greater ration of H:O than 2:1...they have much more hydrogen.
Describe the composition of a lipid:
Consists of 3 fatty acid molecules bonded to a single glycerol backbone
What gives fatty acids their hydrophobic and acidic characteristics?
long carbon chains make them hydrophobic while the carboxylic acid groups make them acidic.
What are the functions of lipids?
primary means of food storage in animals.
-they release more energy per gram weight than any other class of biological compound
-provide insulation and protection against injury b/c they are a major component of fatty tissue
What is another name for fatty tissue?
What are lipid derivatives?
phospholipids, waces, steroids, carotenoids, porphyrins
Describe a phospholipid:
contain glycerol, two fatty acids and a phosphate group and nitrogen containing alcohol., lechithin (used for cell membranes) and cephalin (brain, nerves and neural tissue)
Describe a wax:
esters of fatty acids and monohydroxylic alcohols. Found in skin coatings, fur, exoskeletons
Describe a steroid:
ALL steroids have three fused cyclohexane rings and one fused cyclopentane ring, includes cholesterol, and SEX hormones include corticosteroids.
Describe a carotenoid:
Fatty acid-like carbon chains containing conjugated double bonds and carrying six-membered carbon rings at each end.
-These are the pigments that produce red, yellow and orange in plants and animals...subgroups are carotenes and xanthophylls
Describe a porphyrin:
also called a tetraphyrrole:
-contain four joined pyrrole rings, often complexed with a metal
Ex: the porphyrin "heme" complexes with iron in hemoglobin.