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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Abiotic stress
Outside (nonliving) factos which can cause harmful effects to plants. (e.g. soil conditions, drought, extreme temps)
Adaptive radiation
The evolution of new species or subspecies to fill unoccupied ecological niches. The emergence of a number of lineages from a single ancestral species.
A microorganism that grows in the presence of oxygen.
Agarose gel electrophoresis
A matrix composed of a highly purified form of agar that is used to separate larger DNA and RNA molecules ranging 20,000 nucleotides.
Alternate forms of a gene or DNA sequence, which occur on either of two homologous chromosomes in a diploid organism.
Alternative mRNA splicing
The inclusion or exclusion of different exons to form different mRNA transcripts.
Amino acid
Any of 20 basic building blocks of proteins -- composed of a free amino (NH2) end, a free carboxyl (COOH) end, and a side group (R).
Ampicillin (beta-lactamase)
An antibiotic derived from penicillin that prevents bacterial growth by interfering with cell wall synthesis.
To increase the number of copies of a DNA sequence, in vivo by inserting into a cloning vector that replicates within a host cell, or in vitro by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
An organism that grows in the absence of oxygen.
The pairing of complementary DNA or RNA sequences, via hydrogen bonding, to form a double-stranded polynucleotide. Most often used to describe the binding of a short primer or probe.
A class of natural and synthetic compounds that inhibit the growth of or kill other microorganisms.
Antibiotic resistance
The ability of a microoranism to produce a protein that disables an antibiotic or prevents transport of the antibiotic into the cell.
An immunoglobulin protein produced by B-lymphocytes of the immune system that binds to a specific antigen molecule.
A nucleotide base triplet in a tRNA molecule that pairs with a complementary base triplet, or codon, in a mRNA molecule.
Any foreign substance, such as a virus, bacterium, or protein, that elicits an immune response by stimulation the production of antibodies.
Antigenic determinant
A surface feature of a microorganism or molecule, such as a glycoprotein, that elicits an immune response.
Antigenic switching
The altering of a microorganism's surface antigens through genetic rearrangement, to elude detection by the host's immune system.
Antimicrobial agent
Any chemical or biological agent that harms the growth of microorganisms.
Antisense RNA
A complementary RNA sequence that binds toa naturally occurring (sense) mRNA molecule, thus blocking its translation.
Asexual reproduction
Nonsexual means of reproduction which can include grafting and budding.
A chromosome that is not involved in sex determination.
The normal form of DNA found in biological systems, which exists as a right-handed helix.
Ampicillin resistance gene
A rod-shaped bacterium
(Prosencephalon) Composed of the telencephalon (cerebral cortex) and diencephalon. The cortex processes and integrates sensory input and motor responses and is important for memory and creative thought.
Part of the forebrain, contains the thalamus and hypothalamus.
Relay and integration center for the spinal cord and cerebral cortex.
Controls viscreal functions such as hunger, thirst, sex drive, water balance, blood pressure, and temperature regulation. Also has endocrine function.
(Mesencephalon) A relay center for visual and auditory impulses; also has role in motor control.
(Rhombencephalon) Consists of the cerebellum, pons, and medulla.
Helps to modulate motor impulses initiated by the cerebral cortex, and is important in the maintenance of balance, hand-eye coordination, and the timing of rapid movements.
Acts as a relay center to allow the cortex to communicate with the cerebellum.
Medulla Oblongata
Controls many vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and gastrointestinal activity.
Midbrain + Pons + Medulla
Thyroid gland
Located near the trachea, secretes thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and calcitonin
T4 + T3
Derived from the iodination of the amino acid tyrosine. T4 = Thyroxine
T3= Triiodothyronine
Hormones are necessary for growth and neurological development in chlidren. Increase the rate of metabolism throughout the body.
Decreases plasma Ca2+ concentration by inhibiting the release of Ca2t from bone. Regulated by plasma Ca2+ levels. Antagonistic to parathyroid hormone.
Parathyroid hormone
Synthesized and secreted by the parathyroid glands. Help regulate plasma Ca2+ levels by stimulating Ca2+ release form bone.
Chitin is a long-chain polymeric polysaccharide of beta-glucose that forms a hard, semitransparent material found throughout the natural world.

Modified cellulose with nitrogen groups bonded to sugar subunits.

It is the main component of the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods, such as crustaceans (e.g. crab, lobster and shrimp) and insects (e.g. ants, beetles and butterflies), and the beaks of cephalopods (e.g. squid, and octopuses).
Generally, single-celled organisms that have membrane-bound nuclei and organelles like other eukaryotes.

All of the essential metabolic functions that occur in multicellular organisms (e.g., respiration, photosynthesis, digestion, and excretion) also occur in protists. Can range from photoautrophic species to heterotrophic.
(Protist, Kingdom Euglenozoa)

Euglena possess, within a single cell: a flagellum for locomotion; an eyespot and light detector; chloroplasts and mitochondria; granules of the polysaccharide paramylum for storage of surplus carbohydrates from photosynthesis; a contractile vacuole for osmoregulation; a nucleus; and an extensive endomembrane system.
(Protist kingdom)

The kingdom Archaezoa consists of diplomonads, trichomonads, and microsporidians. All three groups form parasitic symbioses with a variety of other organisms (including humans). They retain primitive characteristics, and therefore, are considered to be the most primitive of protists. They lack mitochondria.
(Protist kingdom)

They are a diverse group in terms of their feeding strategies. Kingdom Euglenozoa includes heterotrophs, such as Trypanosoma, and autotrophs, such as Euglena. Members of the kingdom Euglenozoa do have mitochondria, but are a diverse group in terms of structure. All euglenoids have a flagellum and are typically free-living (and can be photoautotrophic).
(Protist kingdom)

Members of Kingdom Alveolata are even more diverse. They include the dinoflagellates that are involved in such diverse activities as coral reef building and that cause various forms of red tide. They play a major role in the ecology of deep ocean communities because they comprise a significant portion of the phytoplankton that a variety of ocean species ingest (including whales).
(Kingdom Alveolata)

Apicomplexans are parasites, specialized for living and reproducing within the tissues of animals. The infamous Plasmodium, which causes malaria in humans and other animals, is an apicomplexan transmitted by mosquitoes.
Inbreeding occurs when one breeds animals that are closely related in order to make all the progeny
homozygous at all the alleles.
Hybridization occurs when one breeds
animals that are phylogenetically distinct in order to develop an animal that has characteristics of both parents.
The crossing of two animals and can be used to
determine phenotype when the genotype is known or to determine genotype when the phenotype is known or to
investigate co-dominance, expressivity, or penetrance.
Selective breeding
Selective breeding
is defined as creating certain strains of specific traits by controlling breeding.
Test breeding
Breeding of an organism with a homozygous recessive in order to determine whether
an organism is homozygous dominant or heterozygous dominant for a given trait.