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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What three bodies of water make the Arabian Peninsula a peninsula?
Red Sea, Persian Gulf, and the Indian Ocean
How big is the Arabian Peninsula?
1 million square miles
Describe the geography of the Arabian Peninsula.
mostly desert, located in between the Red Sea and Persian Gulf
Where was the religion of Islam born?
on the Arabian Peninsula
What was the peninsula made up of, in Muhammad's time.
What kind of group did people live in?
the people lived in tribes, the tribes were clans of different families who made up a tribe
What did sheep provide?
The people depended on sheep for food, clothing. They took their sheep with them for new grazing and watering holes, ate their meat and made their clothes out of sheepskin
Were the people before Muhammad came into the picture monotheistic or polytheistic?
they were polytheistic, believed in many Gods
Were the cities prosperous or no?
cetrain places on the peninsula were prosperous trade cities
What is a caravan?
a group of travelers by camel who moved together
What did the caravans do?
they went across the Arabian Peninsula and connected to the rest of the middle east ana all the way to China
Why was the busiest caravan stop Mecca?
Mecca there were many shrines where the nomads could go to pray and make their offerings to the various gods and deities they believed in
What language did they speak?
What is a sheikh?
head of a tribe
What is the council of elders?
older people in the tribe who were wise and advisors of the sheikh
Why was it hard to survive?
Desert survival, hard to fin d watering holes and grazing lands for the sheep
What is warfare?
tribal feuding
Why was their warfare?
over grazing land and water and the honor of a family
What were the tents like?
made out of goat hair, dark brown/black, very rough (substantial but almost like felt)
whats another word for nomad
Is there a lot of Bedouins in Saudi Arabia today?
no less than 2 percent
what do Bedouins do today to follow the old traditions?
a lot of them are millionares, you’ll see them going to the desert in their Mercedes with their camels and set up tents, set up satellite dishes and watch videos on the desert
Where was Muhammad born?
On the peninsula , in a place called Yathrib, now called Medina
What does Medina mean in Arabic?
What is the order of the holy cities?
1st is mecca, 2nd is medina, 3rd is jerusalem
how was muhammad raised?
he was orpahaned and raised by an uncle as a child
what kind of people did he meet in his travels
many people,, since christianity and judaism already existed he met those kinds of people
what was one of muhammads jobs
a sheep herder
How did he become wealthy?
Took a job working for a wealthy widow as a young man because a woman could inherit and she inherited hr husbands business but she couldn’t conduct it so he did, married her
what was his wife's name
what did marrying Khadija cause him to do
but she was wealthy and this wealth gave him free time that he never had (leisure time) and so as a result as his economic and social prestige and time he spent a lot of his time in prayer and meditation
where did muhammad recieve his first revelations?
in the mountains where he prayed and meditated
who did he recieve his revelations from and when was his first one
angel gabriel, 610
What did the revelations cause him to think
that he was an appointed prophet of God
what is a prophet
someone who goes around preaching message from god about their religion
what did the revelations teach him
that there was one god (Allah)
how were his followers gained
first told his family members and they accepted his revelations first, then slowly he gained other followers outside his family
when he gained more followers what happened
people became suspicious of him (mostly wealthy merchants form Mecca)
why did the merchants from mecca become so upset about his revelations
They were upset that someone would come along and just say there was no God, upset the money that people were spending on the shrines when they came to Mecca.
what is the ka'aba
a black cube shaped building that held a lot of idols, before Islam
Why did Muhammad and Islam accept the Ka'aba but not the idols
Allah forbidded idol worship
What did Muhammad do before he left?
launched a jihad and the people fought back so he fled to Medina
what is a hijrah
the flight of muhammad to medina
when is the hijrah
what does the hijrah mark
Marks year one of the Muslim calendar.
waht year is it in the muslim calendar
What happens when he goes back to Medina?
he gains more converts, becomes a leader of a political and religious commmunity there, forms an army and goes to war with his enemys
When he goes back to Mecca with his army what does he do?
destroys the idols in the ka'aba but keeps the ka'aba as a sacred place in the musllim faith
why does muhammad keep the ka'aba as a sacred place
a comet fell fromo the sky (sign from God) and was being fought over by 4 famlilies, Muhammad decided to put it on a blanket and each family carry a corner and put it in the Ka'aba
What happens shortly after Muhammad dies?
the whole Arabian Peninsula has converted to Islam, his goal was for this to happen
What happened within 20 yaers of his death
everyone has converted
why was it hard for muhammad to oconvert everyone to islam
the people he inherited were tribal and nomad, tribal people dont take orders from anyone and had thier own rules, its hard to make them all follow one thing
Beacause Muhammad was a religious leader and skilled politician...
He convinced the Bedouins to give loyalty to the Islamic community rather than their individual tribes (most people had tribal loyalties)
what was the islamic state/allegiance he created
a loyalty to allah and divine law; not to tribe, wanted to make a muslim community
What is theocracy?
that god rules, religious law comes before civil law- theo-God cracy-rule
Why was it so hard to find a new leader after Muhammad passed away?
he left no son to carry on so there waere two groups who believed two diferent things on how to fin d a new leader
What did the Shiites think about who the new leader should be?
they believed the caliph should be a descendant of Muhammad
what did the Sunnis think about who the new leader should be?
they thought any qualified elected person should be the caliph
What is the larger group, shiite or Sunni
Who were the Rightly Guided Caliphs, respectively?
Abu Bakr, Uman Ibn al-Khattab, Uthman Ibn- Affan, then Ali
Who was Ali?
it was Muhammad's daughters son
How was Ali unseated?
Uthman's family wanted revenge for his killing and thought Ali's family was responsible for it, Mu'awiyah tried to unseat Ali with a fight, finally he was stabbed to death
What happens when all 4 caliphs are gone?
Mu'awiyah takes over and moves the capital from Mecca to Damascus and becomes the leader
Who was the leader when Mu'awiyah died?
his son Yazid
what was the damascus dynasty called
the Umayyads
What happened when Yazid came?
there was a permanent split in Islam, the Shiites wanted Ali's son Husayn to be caliph, they believed the caliph should only be descendants of Ali and Muhammad
What occured during teh Umayyad dynasty?
there was the gretaest territorial expansion, conquered all of NA into Spain, tried to conquer France but Charles Martel stopped them at the Battle of the tours, the capital was Damascus
What occured during the Abbasid Dynasty?
this was the height of Islamic cultural civilation, the House of Wisdom was during this dynasty (a research center and library (built by Ma'mun)
What happened in 1055 included the Seljuk Turks and Abbasid's?
the Seljuk Turks invade the Abbasids, they let the calliphs sit on the throne and reign, but the Turks rule, they control the Holy Land at the time of the crusades -not the arabs
what happens in 1258 concerning the Mongols and turks
the Mongols attack but they are stopped by the Mamluks in 1260 (another group of Turks)
when do the ottoman turks take over?
By 1453 the Ottoman Turks takeover and rule North Africa, Arabian Peninsula, and Greater Syria until they are defeated in WW I.
What are the 5 pillars of Islam?
Faith, Prayer, Alms, Fasting, Pilgrimage
Describe the pillar Faith
you have to profess your faith and say "There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is its prophet" -you have to submit completely to the will of God
Describe the pillar Prayer
the Muslims pray 5 times a day at sunrise, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening- face Mecca, the imam guides in prayer
Describe the pillar Alms
it is the giving of charity (zakat), the wealthy sacrifice some of ttheir wealth for the poor
Describe the pillar Fasting
occurs during Ramadan (9th month in the Muslim calendar) from sunrise to sunset -the sick and children are excused- fast at the end of Ramadan
describe the pillar pilgrimage
every muslim should take a hajj (to Mecaca) it takes place for 2 months to go worship at the Kaaba