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84 Cards in this Set

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What is the term used to describe one who assumes that their "body will be resilient, quick to heal, and mobile forever?"
Indestruco Phenomenon
What are the primary causes of injury?
ignorance and stupidity
What is the only difference among causes of injury?
The point at which stupidity occurs.
What can ignoring misalignment lead to?
chronic aches and pains due to muscular imbalance
What is a consequence of dancing on hard surfaces?
shin splints and stress fractures
What are the effects of dancing in excessive heat without paying attention to dehydration?
depletion of body salts, muscle spasms..etc.
Common causes of injury
poor health habits, performing above one's ability, ignoring warning signs of fatigue, maintaining high weight/underweight, lack of preparation
Consequences of being an underweight dancer
less able to fight disease and heal itself, severe emotional or psychological stress.
Specifity of exercise program
Ffitness program is specific to what muscle group & type of contraction
ie - activity, contraction, motor skills specific (repetition)
How to tell if dancer is injured
Heat, Redness, Pain
Reason heat identifies injury
increased blood flow - natural response of the body to injury
Reason redness identifies injury
dialation of arteries in that area
How does "good" pain feel?
burn, stretching, generalized, dull, "hurts so good"
How does "bad" pain feel?
sharp, piercing, highly localized, shooting
3 factors resulting from pain accompanying injury... aka what causes pain?
damaged tissue, muscle spasms, swelling
Which muscles should be worked out first and why?
Big muscles before small muscles because the small ones fatigue faster and fatigue increases liklihood of injury
5 steps to best sequence the exercises effectively
1. start gently
2. after big stretch, undo bad effects or note good effects (ex: fix alignment)
3. set up stretch by contracting the opposite muscle group
4. pin point muscle groups by identifying joints and functions of muscles
5. listen to your body
6. always strengthen and stretch
FACT: Conditioning can actually cause problems if the positioning for the exercises is habitually misaligned
true
FACT: It is better to cut an activity than to continue doing it in a misaligned position
true
What percent of dance injuries occure when fatigued?
65%
What will happen to our body if we don't "use it"?
We'll lose it and the body will only be what we need it to be
FACT: we must gradually and progressively overload ourselves
true
What will happen if we don't continually overload our bodies?
We'll hit a plateau
How can muscular endurance be increased?
increase repetitions
How can flexibility be increased?
the range of the exercise must be increased
How can cardiorespiratory endurance be increased?
the time or the target heart rate must be raised.
What are the 5 principles of Conditioning?
1.Warm up/cool down
2.use it or lose it
3.progressive overload 4.mechanically efficient positions
5.sequence exercise effectively
6. Specify of exercise program
How long should you move after an exercise to cool down?
10-15 mins. or til heart rate decreases
Why should you cool down?
1. to prevent pooling of blood = soreness
2. prevents lactic acid build up
When is the most beneficial time to stretch?
During cool down
To what degree should our bodies be warmed up during a warm up?
102/glissening
What type of stretch/warm up should be done before dancing?
dynamic
How are joints effected by warm up?
The synovial fluid decreases in thickness and stickiness
What effect does the increase of heart rate and consequently blood flow have on ligaments and tendons?
They lubricate them
Why would an increase in the flexibility of ligaments and tendons be beneficial?
(warmup)
It helps to achieve a full range of motion
warmup allows ligaments and tendons to -----
move faster
warmup allows what functions to increase in the body?
muscle elasticity, speed of nerve impulses, neuromuscular coordination,
Besides helping with relief of pain, how is RICE beneficial?
helps heal faster
Why should ice not be put directly on the skin?
It will burn the skin
When can ice be put directly on the skin?
If it is being moved
Swelling is made up of what two factors?
Fluid & damaged tissue
Which nervous system causes swelling?
CNS
Why should we use ice to reduce swelling if swelling is good for the body?
It tricks the body to send more blood so that it can heal faster
What are the three types of inflammation?
Accute, Chronic, Sub Acute
What is accute inflammation?
rapid inflammation
What is chronic inflammation?
- inflammation for extended periods of time.
-less swelling and pain
-slow coming on and never really goes away.
-Never really gets better
What is Sub Acute Inflammation?
-Doesn't get too bad and doesn't get better.
-Inflammation may go down, but it's not really better so when the activity is done again, it comes back
-specific movement
How is pain beneficial to healing in relation to "loss of function"?
Pain and swelling inhibit the movment and therefore allows the body to heal
Scar tissue is a -----biproduct of the body
natural
How is scar different than normal skin tissue?
It lays differently, isn't as pliable, is non-elastic
Why is it beneficial to break up scar tissue?
so we don't lose mobility
What are the three types of injuries?
soreness, traumatic, overuse
What is the cause of the shakiness involved in soreness?
It is because the prime movers have fatigued and called in the assistors which aren't strong enough.
How is fatigue, spasms, and lactic acid involved in soreness?
In soreness we become fatigued and the lactic acid builds up and becomes a toxin to the body which may cause spasms
What is ischemia?
The muscles no longer work because they have hit their max
When is delayed use reaction felt?
24-48 hours after the activity
Why does delayed use reaction soreness take awhile to kick in?
Because it is caused from small tears and it takes a bit for inflammation, swelling, and laying down of scar tissue to occur.
What are the five ways to prevent soreness?
1. Alternate muscle groups
2. Caution with movement - eccentric control over long extended periods of time
3. Cardio = more blood, cleans out waste
4. good diet = need nutrients to rebuild
5. stretch = streamline scar tissue, pump out lactic acid
A tramautic injury is----
obvious
What are the four subcategories of tramautic injuries?
1. primary injury
2. secondary injury
3. regeneration
4. remodeling
What signs of an injury are present in a primary injury?
immediate pain, warmth, redness, swelling
When should a primary injury be treated?
immediately
Why is it beneficial to treat a primary injury as soon as possible?
The sooner it is treated the more quickly it will heal
At what point in time does an injury become a secondary injury?
5 mins. after injury
What is one effect of lack of swelling?
infection
What is the absolute first step to treating a secondary injury?
ICE
What does the blood bring to an injury?
protein, electrolytes, antibodies, nutrients...etc.
T/F We should promote the laying down of scar tissue
True
How does the body react to a secondary injury?
starts cleanup (chemical reactions), swells, blood comes, scar tissue begins to lay down
What is cell regeneration?
undamaged cells from surroundings of the injured area replace damaged cells
What is intercellular fluid?
fluid that leaks from cell regeneration that helps to form a protective barrier
What is a benefit of cell regeneration?
it stops damaged cells from dying
When does regeneration occur?
12-24 hours after injury
Up to how long can regeneration take?
12 hrs. - 2 weeks
What is the purpose of regeneration?
re-establish circulation by laying down scar tissue and consequently building up strength
Why is remodeling necessary?
Because there is usually too much scar tissue left from the injury
How is movement helpful during the remodeling process?
it breaks up the scar tissue
What area of scar tissue must be damaged in order for previously injured areas to become re-injured more easily?
at the seam of the scar tissue
When should rehabiliation begin following an injury?
As soon as possible/ the body is ready
What effect does warm up have on muscle elasticity?
increase
What effect does warm up have on the speed of nerve impulses?
increase
What effect does warm up have on neuromuscular coordination?
increase
What effect does warm up have on tissue?
makes it less susceptible to damage
How are ligaments and tendons effected by warm up?
they are able to move faster