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116 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the pelvis made of?
- 2 os coxa bones
- sacrum
- united in the front by cartilage joint (pubic symphysis)
Why is there a rough surface on the pelvis?
That's where powerful muscles attach
Why is the inside of the pelvis smooth?
It holds the bladder and rectal area
Why is the area of the pelvis dense?
Because of the stress of the weight it carries and distributes to the legs
Why does the pelvis move as a single unit?
The ligaments surround the pelvic girdle and restrict movement
Because the pelvis moves as a single unit, what do dancers do to facilitate positional changes?
They use the lumbrosacral joint
What are the 3 bony plates on the os coxa bones?
- ilium
- ischium
- pubis
What is another name we use for our "sitz bones"?
ischial tuberosity
What joint is there in the pelvis that does not move, or causes severe pain when it does?
Sacroiliac joint
What is the name of the thigh socket?
What is the fovea capitis?
The small pit in the center of the femur head
What is the angle of inclination?
The angle created by the head, neck, and shaft of the femur
Where is the iliopsoas bursa and what does it do?
- Below psoas major
- It protects the muscle from contracting over the bone, and prevents inflammation
Where is the ischiogluteal muscle?
Between the ischial tuberosity and the gluteal muscles
Where are the three parts in the hip that move?
- The sacrum and the 5th lumbar
- right hip joint (femur/acetabulum)
- left hip joint (femur/acetabulum)
What is the possible movement of the thigh joint when the pelvis end is stable?
- Flexion
- Extension
- Abduction
- Adduction
- Internal rotation
- External rotation
- Circumduction
What is the possible movement of the thight joint when the femur end is stable?
- Flexion
- Extension
- Adduction
- Abduction
During the walking gait, what happens to the pelvis?
It rotates
What is the difference between the male and female pelvis?
- The male's is more vertical, narrow, parallel, and has a smaller Q-angle

- The female's is more broad, and open
Why is the female's pelvis broader and more open than the male's?
- The angle of the sciatic notch
- The sacrum is wider and broader
What are the 3 ligaments of the hip joint?
- Ischiofemoral
- Pubofemoral
- Iliofemoral
Where is the ischiofemoral ligament?
- Posterior side of hip joint
- Spans between ischium and back of femoral neck
What does the ischiofemoral ligament prevent?
- Posterior displacement of femur
- Internal hip rotation
- Horizontal adduction
Where is the pubofemoral ligament?
- Lower anterior side of hip joint
- Runs between pubic bone and area near lesser trochanter
What does the pubofemoral ligament prevent?
- Hip abduction
- External hip rotation
- Hip extension
What is another term for the iliofemoral ligament?
The "Y" ligament
What is the strongest ligament in the body?
The iliofemoral, or "Y" ligament
What does the iliofemoral ligament do/prevent?
- Keeps the femur head in place
- Prevents:
- Trunk from falling backwards
- Anything involving bringing the leg behind the body (tendu, arabesque, etc.)
- Limits:
- Hip hyperextension
Where is the iliofemoral ligament located?
Spirals inferiorly from the anterior inferior iliac spine, diverges into 2 bands and attaches at upper and lower portions of intertrochanteric line
How does the iliofemoral ligament allow a stance to be maintained?
It becomes taut with hip extension
How do dancers cheat to get the movement the iliofemoral ligament prevents?
- Strech it to gain a 40 degree hip hyperextension
- Anteriorly tilt the pelvis to acheive greater turnout
What are the anterior muscles of the hip?
- Psoas major
- Iliacus
- Iliopsoas
- Sartorius
- Rectus femorus
Why is the iliopsoas a big deal?
- One of the most powerful muscles in the body
- Most important muscle in hip flexion
- Only muscle that attaches on spine, pelvis, and femur
- For dancers, it allows for beautiful extensions
Because of the position of the iliopsoas, what does it do?
It produces movement, stabilizes the hip, and affects the position of the lumbar spine
What are the characteristics of the sartorius?
- Long, less strong muscle
- Designed for speed, not strength
- May be a reason for common strains in this area
- Flexes hip when knee is stable
- May tip pelvis forward if shortened
What are the abducters of the hip?
- Tensor fascia lata
- Superior anterior gluteus maximus
- Gluteus medius
- Gluteus minimus
What does the tensor fascia lata do?
Helps move the leg forward when walking
What is the largest of the lateral muscles?
Gluteus medius
Which muscle is the most fundamental hip abducter?
Gluteus medius
Which muscle keeps the hips from moving too far out when walking?
Gluteus minimus
On a stable leg, which muscles abduct the pelvis?
- Gluteus medius
- Gluteus minimus
What are the adducters of the hip?
- Gracilis
- Pectineus
- Adductor longus
- Adductor brevis
- Adductor magnus
What is the most medial of thigh muscles?
What is the smallest and deepest muscle?
What muscle do you use to cross your legs?
Which adductor is the most anterior and superior?
Adductor longus
Which adductor is smaller, deeper, and located above and behind the longus?
Adductor brevis
Which adductor has 2 separate sets of actions?
Adductor magnus
Which muscle clusters work together to keep the pelvis level, and bring you to an upright position?
Adductors and abductors
What are the posterior extensors?
- Gluteus muscles
- Hamstrings
What are the deep external rotators?
- Obturator internis
- Superior gemellus
- Obturator externus
- Inferior gemellus
- Quadratus femoris
- Piriformis
In which direction do the rotators primarily run?
What do the rotators prevent in hip abduction?
Upward jamming of the femur
What is the largest and most superficial of the gluteus muscles?
Gluteus maximus
For what kind of movement is the gluteus maximus crucial for?
Those requiring large amounts of force, such as running, jumping, going up stairs, etc.
What is contained in the hamstring complex?
- Semimembranosus
- Semitendinosus
- Biceps femoris
What is the attachment for all the hamstrings?
Ischial tuberosity
Which muscle complex's function is considered more postural and fine tuned?
What constitutes flexion at the hip?
Movement of either lever that lessens the anterior angle between the pelvis and the femur

- There is one position of extension, but an infinite number of flexion
What is rotation at the hip?
The infinite number of positions of inward and outward rotation

- There is only one neutral position; "parallel"
What is abduction of the hip?
Any movement of either lever that decreases the lateral angle
What is adduction of the hip?
Any movement of either lever that increases the lateral angle
What is the body's natural turnout?
- Thigh joint: 65-70 degrees
- Ankle joint: 5-10 degrees
- Knee joint: 10-15 degrees
Why do we desire turnout?
- Aesthetics
- Greater base of support
- Better flexibility in battements
We need to stop emphasizing the ____ of turnout, and emphasize instead the _____/______.
- Size
- Strength/power
The extent of turnout is determined by:
- Bony structures
- Ligaments
- Muscles
What are the 4 factors that determine turnout?
- Depth and shape of the acetabulum
- Angle of femoral torsion
- Angle of inclination
- "Y" ligament
What are the two acetabular facings?
Interior and lateral
At what age is the position of the acetabulum fixed and determined?
3 years old
Forward facing acetabulums allow for better efficiency in what?
Walking and running
From which view can you see the angle of femoral torsion?
From above (the transverse plane)
What are the two possible angles of femoral torsion?
Anteverted and retroverted
What is the angle of femoral torsion created by?
The line through the neck and the shaft of the femur
What is a normal degree of femoral torsion?
8-12 degrees
What is the anteverted angle of femoral torsion?
When the orientation of the femur neck is posterior to the frontal plane (it angles back)
Which angle of femoral torsion causes less turnout?
What misalignments of the hip can anteverted femoral torsion cause?
- Lumbar lordosis
- Increased Q angle
- Patellar problems
- Foot pronation
What is the retroverted angle of femoral torsion?
When the femur neck is inclined forward, allowing for greater turnout

"turning backwards" or out-toeing
What is the single most important factor in one's ability to turn out?
Having a retroverted angle of femoral torsion
At what age is the angle in the femur neck determined, and why?
17 years old; because the pelvis is the last thing in the body to stop growing
Where is the angle of inclination seen?
From the front (frontal plane)
What are the two individual differences in the angle of inclination?
- Coxa vara
- Coxa valga
What are the characteristics of coxa vara?
- The angle of inclination is abnormally decreased
- Greater risk of fracture
- Limits abduction
- Tends to produce genu valgum
What are the characteristics of coxa valga?
- Angle of inclination is abnormally decreased
- Helps with abduction
- Tend to produce genu varum
What is the only way to change the degree of hip turnout past the age of 12-13?
Stretching the ligaments
When is the "Y" ligament at its point of maximum tension?
When the thigh joint is extended and externally rotated (in 1st position)
When does the "Y" ligament become slack, allowing for greater range of motion?
When the joint is flexed, adducted, and internally rotated
What are the dangers of stretching the "Y" ligament? And why do dancers do this?
Stretching causes:
- Micro tearing
- Scarring
- Sublaxation and dislocation
- Osteoarthritis

Dancers do this to achieve greater turnout
How can dancers increase their turnout by safely using their full potential?
- Specific flexibility exercises
- Using correct technique
Why is the frog stretch bad?
- Tightens lower back extensors
- Puts pressure on medial knee
How long does it take stress fractures to heal?
2-6 months
What are the 7 risk factors for getting a stress fracture?
- High intensity training
- Hard training surface
- Poor nutrition
- Osteoporosis
- External rotation of the hip beyond 65 degrees
- Muscle fatigue
- Poor shock absorption
What are the symptoms of a stress fracture?
- Site pain, worsened with weight bearing
- Pain increases at the beginning of class, decreases during (while warm), and increases again after
What is osteoarthritis?
A progressive thinning and wearing away of the articular cartilage of the hip, and the associated inflammation
What kind of pain is associated with osteoarthritis?
- Dull, aching pain in the groin, outer thigh, or buttocks
- Lower back pain
What restrictions occur due to osteoarthritis?
- Loss of hip range of motion
- Shortened hip flexors
What is one of the most common injuries of pelvis and hip?
Hip muscle strain
When is iliopsoas tendonitis particularly vulnerable?
When the hip is flexed, abducted, and externally rotated
What kind of hip injury accounts for half of all hip injuries?
Snapping hip
How does internal snapping hip occur?
The iliopsoas tendon snaps over the femoral head and hip capsule
What occurs during lateral snapping hip?
The IT band moves over the greater trochanter of the femur
Who is more at risk for lateral snapping hip syndrome?
Those with:
- A wide pelvis; prominent trochanter
- Ligamental laxity
- Weak hip abductors
What is trochanteric bursitis associated with?
Lateral snapping hip syndrome
How does trochanteric bursitis occur?
As the IT band snaps over the femur, it rubs against the trochanteric bursa, which can then become inflamed
What are some of the results of trochanteric bursitis?
- Lower back pain
- Tendonitis
- Arthritis
- Hip degeneration
What is caused by increased pelvic inclination, and why?
Lumbar lordosis; the sacrum is forced forward, pushing the lumbar forward
What 5 muscles hold the pelvis in position?
- Rectus abdominus
- Gluteus maximus
- Hamstrings
- Femoris/sartorius
- Back extensor
If the hamstrings are overstretched, what can they cause in the pelvis?
Increased inclination
If the hamstrings are too tight, what can they cause in the pelvis?
Decreased inclination
What muscles work opposite the abdominals?
Back extensors
What two muscle complexes stabilize the pelvis?
Hamstrings and abdominals
What two things cause the hip flexors to shorten?
- Lots of sitting
- Forced turnout
What muscles are forced to grip when the hip flexors are short, and what does this cause the knees to do?
- Gluteus maximus, and quadriceps
- The knees bend
In palpation, where can tendonitis in the hip flexors be felt?
In the sartorius and the rectus femoris
How does tendonitis in the psoas occur?
- Due to the inguinal ligament (which acts like a retinaculum)
- Muscle becomes swollen, inflamed, and tight
If the _____/_____ is too tight, it may roll/rub against the joint capsule.