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16 Cards in this Set

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Describe the essential characteristics of dairying.
Hint: 8
1. Intensive cow raising for milk on small properties.
2. Located where over 1000mm of rainfall is received, 9 months of sunshine and is close to major cities.
3. Fairly high carrying capacity, cows to the acre.
4. Pasture improvement, growth of fodder crops, used of supplements.
5. Scientific breeding methods and technology.
6. Intense labour applications and high capital to land.
7. Dairy factories are an integral part of the landscape.
8. Relatively intensive dispersed settlement patterns.
Physical factors influencing the location of dairying.
Climate - rainfall must be 1000mm per year, 9 months of sunshine to promotes pasture growth and ensure there is enough for the dry season. (South West areas of WA below Perth).

Topography - flat or gently undulating land as hilly country has the potential to dry out in summer (Pinjarra Plain)

Soils - fertile alluvial, loam/clay to retain water and allow pasture growth. (Pinjarra Plain, most fertile soils in SW).

Vegetation - cleared natural Sclerophyllous forest vegetation.
Explain how economic factors of distance from market and transport have influenced the location of dairying.
1. Distance from market - located less than 2 hours drive from Perth e.g. White Rocks Dairy as milk is a perishable product and needs to be transported to market quickly.

2. Transport - milk is picked up by refrigerated trucks twice daily, must be easily accesible by the trucks in order to be transported to factories.
Physical and cultural inputs of dairying.
Physical inputs:
1. High rainfall (over 850mm, 9 months rain, 3 months drought).
2. High insolation (200 - 250 days).
3. Flat topography.
4. Fertile soils of the pinjarra plain, loam/ clay.

Cultural inputs:
1. Irrigation channels and dams
2. Fertilizers.
3. Clover and rye pasture, imported.
4. Milking shed
5. Fencing, electric or post and rail.
6. Breeding.
7. Stock
Farming practices of dairying.
1. Artificial insemination
2. Milk production
3. Laser levelling
4. Animal husbandry
5. Rotary dairying
6. Calving
7. Farm maintenance
8. Administration
9. Add fertilizer to pasture.
Outputs of dairying.
1. Highest production of cows and milk.
2. Weaner calves, of 100, 25% are retained.
3. Highest productivity of fields.
4. Effluent used for fertilizer
5. 1000L of milk per day.
Technological change influence on dairying.
Hint: 4
1. Laser levelling
2. Artificial insemination
3. Computerisation
4. Rotary dairy
Laser levelling influence on dairying.
Finds any dips in the paddock and flattens them out.
Levels paddocks at a slight angle to aid run off.
Laser directs to required soil depth, allows greater efficiency of water usage.
Artificial insemination influence on dairying.
Farmers are able to purchase sperm - buy sperm of healthiest bull that is known to produce healthy offspring.
Now able to determine when cows get pregnant and to some extent gener of the calf, better business decision and production of milk more controlled.
Computerisation influence on dairying.
Each cow has a computer profile and electronic tag.
Alerts farmer if the cow is suffering an illness and of the nutrients it requires.
More efficient animal husbandry.
Rotary dairy influence on dairying.
Cows are moved slowly around as milk is extracted from udder.
More efficient than stationary pens as cows are constantly loaded on and off.
Cows are also fed as they move around, connected to computerisation, specific amount of food given to each cow.
Environmental impact of dairying.
Hint: 4
1. Clearing of forest and woodlands
2. Alterations to the hydrological cycle
3. Eutrophication
4. Waste pollution
Clearing of forest and woodlands.
- natural vegetation is Scleophyllous forest.
- clearing this contributed to decline in native animals e.g. chuditch, numbat, tammar, grey kangaroo
- tree clearing causes transpiration to not occur anymore, which usually keeps water table below the surface.
- water table rises and creates a local pond in winter, dries up in summer can affect pasture.
Alterations to the Hydrological cycle.
- reduction in flooded areas and general decline in natural wetlands as the land is drained and water is used for farming.
- e.g. reduction in the Harvey Estaury, decline in the Myalup Swamp.
Eutrophication
- excess nutrients get into the waterways due to run-off.
- phosphate and nitrate in the fertiliser feed algae causing algae blooms e.g. blue-green algae.
- Agriculture Department monitors how much superphosphate is put into ground to prevent eutrophication.
- Dawesville Channel opens Peel Inlet into Ocean so the tide flushes out the estuary.
Waste pollution
- cow excretement from milking shed used to go directly into waterways.
- caused algal blooms due to oxygen depletion and eutrophication.
- effluent pond collects run-off so it doesn't collect in waterways and use it as fertilizer.