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128 Cards in this Set

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is it accuratley measuring what it is supposed to measure?
Evaluation of a psychological test. Is it reliable?
Operational Definition
turning a construct into a number.

i.e. how many times a person says they are sad in a session

i.e. psychological testing
i.e. how many times a person says they are sad in a session.

i.e. psychological testing
The evidence of happy, sad, depression.
Things we can't see.
4 BASIC steps to Inquiry.
1) observation
2) theory/hypothesis
3) test hypothesis (O=T+e)
4) varify results
Internal & External Validity
Internal - are you making a good observation. (manipulate)

External - how well can you generalize your findings to your population (measure)
Internal = manipulate

External = measure
Descriptive Statistics
Central Tendency.

mean - average

median - middle

mode - most often occuring
Strong relationship. Closer to 1.
Correlation & Correlation Coefficient
Strength and Relationshop.

*does not mean cause/effect
*not inferential statistics.

A number that tells information between the variation between two numbers.
True Experiment
Manipulate, control, measure
Quasi Experiment
Manipulate, measure
*compairison of different groups
comparison of different groups
*naturalistic observation
Naturalistic Observation
3 Kinds of Research and describe each
Process - what you did

Outcome - what you have accomplished

hypothesis testing - devloping a theory. generating new information. scientific investigation, lawful relationships.
consistancy in measurment
Organic vs. Functional
Biological vs learned, aquired, and enviromental factors
Inter-Rater Reliability
does everyone see the same results
projective testing
rosach ink blot
objective testing
a,b,c,d testing
number to define a construct
Stastical Anyalisis
Probabilty of chance
Inferential Statistics
cause/effect statistics
Independent vs Dependent Variables
Independent = manipulate

Dependent = measure
Real Differences vs. Chance Factors
what is the chance that this data represents chance?
extraneous variable
anything that could have an impact on the dependent varibale that is not the independent variable
4 types of control
1) Random Sampling
2) holding constants
3) controlling eperimental factors
4) comparison
Representative Sample
does it represent the population you are giving it to?
Subject variable
anything about that person your measureing that could influence the operational definition
Random Sampling
everyone has an equal chance, the selection of one person will not impact the selection of another.
Hawthorne effect
subject reactivity
Confound Variable
uncontrolled extraneous variables
Process to the Prodcut
the things that happen in a persons life to make them who they are in their personailty at any give time
ideographic vs nomathetic
ideographic = case study, individual

nomathetic = large group
logitugional vs cross sectional
studies done over a long period of time vs studies done at differnt points in persons lives
qualatatie vs quanatative
Qualatative = we change qualities from one stage to the next and you qualatatively different (Piaget)

Quantatative = you add stuff together i.e. a 10 year old has 5 more years of behavoral experiecnes than a 5 year old (behavoral, learning theory)
Piagets Stages
1) Sensori Motor (senses)
2) Pre-Operational (object permanance)
3) Concreate Operations (schemas)
4) Formal Operations (reality with other possiblities)
Cognative Dissonence
Beliefs dont match up, internal conflict, motivate in order to relieve, change to relieve stres. Neg REinfor resolution stratagies.
As new info comes in it compliments and fits to the current scheme
when you alter your scheme
your understanding of the world
Law of Effect
if it feels good, you keep doing it, if it doesn't feel good, you don't keep doing it
Satifies whatever behavor
Self Efficacy vs. Self Esteem
S. Efficacy = your believe in your ability to reach your goal

S. Esteem = the stories you tell yourself about yourself
Classical Conditioning
Association between Stimuli.

US(food) -> IR (salivating


CS(bell) -> CR (salivation
Operant Conditioning
Is the behavor with the stimuli

the consquenses of behavior are manipulated in order to increase or decrease the frequency of an existing response or to shap and entirely new response

UCS(beer) -> UCR(chcanges that take place in the body

CS(Beer) -> CR (thinking of beer)

A drug user may learn to compensate for the behavoral deficts through shaping and reinforcement for corrective behavoral. Now it takes more alcohol for the driver to appear intoxicated . This will also result in unfounded confidence and more risk taking.
Classical Extinction
once conditioning has occured, and not keeping the stimulus, the response diminishes
Operant Extinction
removing the reinforcer
Use-Cue Association
a sight, sound, smell, etc... causes you to crave the drug.

Higher - Order Conditioning
one conditinoned Stimulus becomes a stimulus for a new conditioned stimulus
Spontaneous Recovery
following extinction and a rest peroid , you can reintroduce the conditioned stimulus
Responding to different but similiar stimuli (once condintioning has occured)
not responding to differt but similar stimuli
any consquence which follwoing a behavor will increase the likelyhood of repeating behaviors
an consequence in which following a behavior will decrease the likelyhood of repeating behaviors
2 factor theory
in order to understand complex behavior, you have to understand classical and operant conditioning
Positive Reinforcemnt
Delivering a stimulus, reward
Positive Punishment
Delivering a stimulus, spanking
Negative Reinforcemnt
Removing a stimiulus, removal of pain, taking advil for a headache
Negative Punishment
Removing a stimulus, Time out, grounding
Continous Reinforcemnt (Schedules of Reinforcement)
Reinforces every time there is a behavior
Partial Reinforcemnt
(Schedules of Reinforcement)
Not Conintuous
Fixed Ratio
Every 10 minutes, a reward
Same every time, required number of behaviors
Fixed Interval
Paycheck every friday, salary
Same every time, passing of time
Variable Ratio
Kind of the same everytime, number of required behaviors
Variable Interval
Kind of the same everytime, passing of time.
Functional Vs. Oraganic
Functional = learned, acquired

Organinc = biological
State vs. Trait
State = current situation, something could have happend to make this person appear with a personality disorder, but it is NOT biological but only due to the state of things

Trait = biological. the person is born with a tendency to act like they have a personality disoreder
Diathesis Stress model
A person could natually have odd behaviors but not nessicairly a personality disorder, any tramaitc event could push this person into having the disorder.
Dual Diagnois
more than one diagnosis. i.e. depression with substance abuse disorder
false perceptions
false beliefs
Id, Ego, Superego
Id = the part that is irrational

Ego = balancer between id and superego

Superego = completely rational, no wrong
3 major stages of assesment
1) Diagnosis
2) Intervention
3) Termination
Efficacy Tracking
Tracking the person's self efficacy throughout the treatment (belief in the ability to reach your goal)
Case Conceptualization
forming your own understanding based on your theoriretical perspective about the person then applying your understanding
Columbo Intervieweing
Structure your interview by asking dumb questions until your client is telling yo uwhat you want to tell them
Self Monitoring
the simplier the more complaint and acurate... explain to your client the reasoning of self monitoring
Self Report invetories
Self realization
Active listening
client centered therapy. Reflecting, client hear themselves.
Diagnosis Uniformity Myth
Everyone who has the same problem needs the same exact treatment
Anchoring Bias
only hearing the first importatnt thing, and missing all the rest
Iatroplacebogenic Effect
Clients reaction to self and the enviroment
Other disorders that maybe be a focus of clinical attention
Personality Disorders/Mental Retardnation
General Medical Conditions
Psychoscoial and Enviromental Problems
Gloabl Assessment of Functioning
Schedule 1 Drug
No legal medical use/high abuse and dependence potential. Marijuana, heroin, LSD
Schedule 2 Drugs
Legal Medical use, high abuse/dependence potential. Demerol, Morphine, Cocaine, Ritalin, Secobarbital
Schedule 3 Drugs
Legal medical use, moderate phsycical and psychological dependece. Nalrphine, paregaric, gluethimde
Schedule 4 Drugs
Legal medical use, Limited physcial and psychological dependnce. Valium, Darvan, phenobarbital
Schedule 5 Drugs
Legal medical use, dependence risk less thatn IV. Buprenex, cough syrup w codine.
Abuse vs. Dependence
Abuse = reoccurant use reuliting in failure to fulfill major obligations. reoccurant use in situations when is hazardus. reoccurant use leads to legal problems. continuted use despite persistant social or interpesonal problems resulting from use.

Dependence = give up other important aspects of life due to use. unsuccesful attempts to stop or reduce use. great deal of time spent in activites designed to obtain the substance use the substance, or to recover from use affects. continuted use despite problems which are caused by use.
Withdrawal effects (uppers vs. downers0
opposite effect of the drug
functional analysis
A-B-C = antacedents(leading to behavoral) behavoral, cognative/consequences
Naturalistic Observation
not interfearing with the natural enviroment
Stimulus, reaction, Consequence + Stimulus, Organism, Reaction, Consequence
Referral Questions
.client identifying information
.name/address/type of agency
.reason for the current clincical contact
.circumstances by which the client became available for the MSE
Informed Concent
Your obligation to repect the rights of the client to know
(Proposed treatment, etc.)
Mood vs. Affect
Telling vs. display
Neuron Story
The body of the neuron is called the soma, and it conssts fo the Nucleus, the post synaptic receptors, the axon, myelin sheath, pre-synaptic terminals, nodes of ranvier, and the axon hillock. The two fundemental jobs of the myelin sheath are to insulate the neuron, and to keep ions from leaking out. A typical action potential would work by the post synaptic receptros recieving and sending it down the xon from one node of ranvier to another out to the pre-synatic terminals where they are put out and then latch on to similar post synaptic receptors then shot back to the synapse where they are either biodegrated or put through a reuptake. Schizophrenia, Parkisons, LSD, and Tardive Dyskinesia all are similar because they all effect Dopamine. They all show similarities in how dopamine is processed in the brain so that they look and act similar.
Hair-trigger sympathetic system
where stimiluses seem to be more effecting a person than another. too many stimuluses could cause a person to have anxiety.
Lobes and their functions
the four lobes of the neo-cortex are: the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal. The front lobe is responsible for cognitive funcitons, and motor abilities. The parietal lobe is repsonsible for senese. The occipital lobes main responsibility is of visons, adn the temporal is of emotions, language, memory, and auditory. The association cortex is responible for communication betwen lobes and neurons. without it, the rain cannot function probperly because there would be no interacation between the lobes and neurons.
Cognative Functioning
your ability to understand and process information
Limbic system
Seat of emotion. Mid-Brain.
Motor cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia
MC = Cordination and balance
C = motor functioning
BG = movement, control.
Medial Forebrain Bundle
Meso-limbic system. Seat of pleasure.

The medial forebrain bundle is also known as the pleasure center. its relationship with drug use has to do with durgs mimicking pleasure in the medial forebrain bundle. Drugs mimick the eating, sleeping, and sex pleasures and trick the medical forebrain bundle into thinking its feeling these things. This is the pleasure people report from using drugs.
Pharmacokenetic Tolerance
the body changes the way it metabolists. the body gets better at moving things throughout the body.
Pharmacodynamic Tolerance
result of the body adjusting to the neurophysical change as a way to proctect itself from the drug. Refers to neurocommunication changes because of continued use.
Brain Stem
the three major parts of the brain stem are the cerebellum, medulla, and pons The cerebellum is responisble for balance,handeye coordnation, fine motor movemnts. The medual is responsible for breathing, heartbeat, swallowing, and other GI functions. THe Pons is the bridge between the brainstem and mid-brain. If something iside the brainstem is not working properly, then it does not get to the brain and your body cannot react properly to the stimulus.
Ways drugs may interfear with the way neurotransmitters talk to each other.
Drugs can interfere with neurocommunication by blocking/shutting down receptor sites and by mimicking neurotransmitters. When a receptor site is blocked, the brain must then do more to maintain balace, the same thing with mimicking neurotransmitters. Eventually the brain starts getting tired of over working and neurocommunication starts to slow down.
Agonist vs. Antagonist
Agonist = locks Post Synaptic Recptors ability to be affected

Antagonist = compliments effect
Steps in Drug Fate
1) Administration
2) Abosorbtion
3) Distribution
4) Interaction
5) Elimination
Concept of tolerance
a diministed response to the effects of a given amount of a drug as a result of previous exposure. Typically caused by repeated eposures to the drug in order to produce the desire mental behavior effect
Why Tolerance is important (operant and classical conditioning)
If one uses in a certain enviroment, their body starts to classicaly condition the enviroment and prepare itself for adminstration of drugs. When in a non-classicaly conditoned enviroment ht ebody is not prpared resulting in a possible overdose. In operant conditioning, a drug user may leran to compenseate for the behavoral defict through shaping and reinforcement for crrective behavors, for example a drunk driver becomes better at stayin withing the lines with increased intake after a period of drunk driving experience. now it will take even more alchol for the driver to appear affetced, this will also result in unfounded confidence and more risk takeing
Substance intoxification
the development of a reversible substance specific syndrome due to recent ingestion of, or exposure to a substance. clincally significant behavioral or psychological changes that are due to the effect of the substance on the CNS and devlop during or shortly after use of the subject. The symptoms are not due to a general medical condition or another mental condition
A narcotic is a drug that causes sleep. The carcotic analgesics produce analgesia (loss of sensitivity to pain) and amke a person sleepy.
Comes from a poppy.
Drugs used for treatment
Naltrexone, Antabuse
Dissociative Disorder
multiple personality, the idea that some indivudal faced with some intolerable level with trama and turns away from reality by splitting into a differnt personality.
Borderline Personality disorder
Persuasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships.
*efforts to avoid abandonment
*unstable intense interpersonal relationship
*unstable self-image
*impulsive in at least 2 areas that are potenitally self damaging
*reacurrent suicidal behaviors
*chronic feelings of emptiness
*inappropriate anger
*stress related paranoid
*very reactant
*dissociative symptoms
Histrionic Personality Disord
Persuasive pattern of exessive emotionality and attention seeking.
*over dramatic
*demands sympathy but lacks empathy
Narsicisstic Personality disorder
Persuasive pattern or gradissity in fantasy or behvio plus lack of empathy
Avoidant Personality Disorder
Persuasive pattern of social inhibitation, feeling of inadequecy. hypersensitivity to negative evaluation
preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism and need for mental and interpersonal control
Dependent Personality disorder
Persuasive and Essive need to be taken care of
*low sense of self esteem
*needs alot of compliments
*needs/high maintenence
*will create a crisis to test limits
*lots of external validation
Anti Social Personality disorder
decietfullness, impusivity, irritablity, reckless, disregard for safety and welfare of others, lack of remorse.
Paranoid Personality Disorder
persausive distrust and suspicious of others
*trusts nobody
*information will be used against them
*always trying to interpretate trying to read into and usually thinks the worst
*holds grudges
Schzoid Personality Disorder
Persuasive pattern of detatchment from social relationshops and restricted range of emotions.
Inteste discomfort in interpersonal relationships, cognative or perceptial and esetic behavior
*ideas of reference
*odd beliefs
*odd thinking and speech
*odd behavior