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30 Cards in this Set

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History
Harvested since 4000 BC in countries such as,Egypt & Persia.
Opium popular 200 years ago, when it was introduced to Europe
Initial uses
plethora of issues: diarrhea - coughing.
Early 1800s, used to make morphine.
Afghanistan
1979, afghan govt. began to loose control, when it was invaded by the Soviet Union.
Invasion led to an increase in opium production to get money for guns.
When they left, warlords took control, promoted opium production
Production
Afghanistan produces 92% of non-pharmaceutical opiates.
Afghan opium takes 100,000 lives around the world
Russian epidemic
30,000 deaths a year, due to heroin.
2009 - 2.5 mil. addicts.
Heroin in America
new users 95-02 ranged from 121,000 - 164,000.
Actual findings, 281,000 received treatment in 2003.
314,000 used in the past year.
Side effects of heroin
respiratory problems, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, itchy skin/rash
Lethal dose
depends on purity, user, method of administration
street names (heroin)
china white, black pearl, brown sugar, junk, tar, snow, snowball, smack, scag, scat, sack, skunk
Morphine side effects
similar to heroin
Lethal dose (morphine)
minimum 200mg
street names (morphine)
mister blue, morpho, dreamer, god's drug
Oxycodone side effects
similar to others: irregular heartbeat, muscle pain, yellowing skin/eyes, dizziness, dark urine, fever/chills
lethal dose (oxycodone)
usually 200mg
street names (oxycodone)
blue, cotton, ox, hillbilly heroin, pills
Hydrocodone
vicodin = short acting version
street names (hydrocodone)
vikes, viko, hydro, norco
Opiate facts
1% prescribed become addicted.
2/3 of users report having been physically/sexually abused as a child.
symptoms compared to the "super flu"
Opiate desired drug amount determination
Desired dose (mg/kg) x person’s weight (kg) = n (mg) of the drug
Methadone
schedule II analgesic. used to reduce opiate usage.
created in germany.
even though it acts on the same opiate receptors & has similar effects, it is chemically different
street names (methadone)
methadose, dollies, junk, metho, jungle juice, fizzies, wafter
methadone doses in a clinic
patients usually start at a low dose & observed for any adverse effects.
Majority of patients require 80-125mg/day
Cost of methadone
not usually covered by insurance.
welfare is encouraged
can cost upwards of $500/month!
LAAM (levo-a-acetylmethadol)
Schedule I drug
2nd line treatment if patients do not respond to methadone.
Starting dose = 20-40mg
LAAM vs. methadone
only administered 2-3 times/week, rather than daily.
LAAM does not produce a high like methadone.
Found more effective in reducing heroin dependence
Oxycontin abuse
majority in teens - as young as11
method of use: oral, smoking, snorting, injecting
celebrities on opiates
robert downey jr.
kurt cobain
courtney love
angelina jolie
pain clinics
1st clinic founded after WWII
clinics focus on treatment of chronic pain associated with cancer, back problems, & other chronic pains
Problems with pain clinics
"Pain Mills" disguised as pain clinics.
in 2010 enough painkillers were prescribed to supply every adult with a 1 month supply.
Most selling states = Florida, New Mexico, Oklahoma
Florida & Pain clinics
prescription-drug od kill 7 floridians a day.
In past years, loose laws in Florida allowed pain clinics to flourish