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61 Cards in this Set

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Where was/is it listed in bergey's?
Edition 1 - vol 2 (gram + bacteria other than actinomycetes. NOW - edition 5 - actinomycetes
taxonomy of corynebacterium
Bacteria, actinobacteria, actinobacteria, corynebacteriales, corynebacteriaceae
Two genera od corynebacterium
corynebacterium amd Turicells
What are the CMN families?
Corynebacterium, Mycobacteriaceae, and Nocardiaceae
CMN include what genera?
gordonia and (corynebacterium and turicellis)
What are the 4 biotypes of C. diphtheriae?
mitis, gravis, intermedius, belfanti
The C. diphtheriae group contains what bac?
C. diphtheriae, C. ulcerans (zoonotic) and C. pseudotuberculosis (zoonotic). zoonotic means it can be transferred from animals to humans
Gram ?, mophology
Gram +, straight or slightly curved rods that are clubshaped. cells often arranged in V or L formation or palisades
Motile? Acid fast? Anaerodes? Catalase?
Non-motile, non-acid fast, facultative anerobes, catalase-positive
Two special things about corynebacterium
undergo snapping division. form metachromatic granules
Natural habitat and transmission of C. diphtheriae
nasopharynx, or skin lesions, not found on animals. Transmitted by direct contact or sneezing and coughing
What gives diphtheria toxin?
corynephage or phage Beta
What the 3 domains of the single polypeptide?
A (active) or catalytic (C).....B (binding) or Receptor (R)..... T (transmembrane) of Tether
What does the B domain do in diphtheria toxin?
binds to the cell surface receptor (HB-EGF) and the toxin is brought in by endocytosis
What does the T domain do in diphtheria toxin?
release the active part of the polypeptide into the cytoplasm
What does the A domain do in diphtheria toxin?
works in the cytosol to catalyze the NAD+ dependent transfer ADP-ribose molecule to the EF-2. It inactivates the factor and inhibits protein synthesis
What does the diphtheria toxin work on?
the oropharyngeal cells
C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis produce what additional virulence factor
Phospholipase D
What are the corynobacterium that have clinical significance?
C. diphtheriae, C. ulcerans, C. jeikium, and C. urealyticum
nasopharyngeal C. diphtheria
pseudomembrane, coating of the trachea, cervical lymph node swelling (bull neck diphtheriae)
cutaneous C. diphtheria
skin lesions covered by a gray-brown pseudomembrane
Diphtheria toxin --- life threatening by....
toxin acting on the heart
Diphtheria treatment
penicillin, preventing respiratory obstruction (tracheostomy), anti-toxin (made in horses) ****can only neutralize the toxin BEFORE it enters the cells
Vaccine
given to infant, formalin to make toxoid, part of the DTaP vaccine
Alberts stain
show metachromatic granules (toluidine blue, methylene green and iodine)
Growing corynebacterium
tinsdale agar that contains tellurite (colonies are greyish black), some, lipophilic, grow best on 1% tween 80
Pyrazinamidase test
most non-toxigenic species of Corynebacterium possess enzyme pyrazamidase (pyrazinamide----P-dase---> amonia + pyrazinoic acid) Non toxigenic don't have this enzyme
Cystinase test
production of H2S from cystine in Tinsdale medium. This is why the colonies are black, all corynebacterium are positive
vivo neutralization assay
inject rabbits/guinea pigs with culture broth and antitoxin
vitro immunodiffusion assay
also called the Elek test. Heavy inoculum and filter paper with antitoxin at 90 degree angle. Within 24 hours a visible line will form
Shick testing
used to assess immunity to diphtheria
corynebacterium genes tested for
tox, rpoB, pld
Bacitracin
Group A is sensitive. Recycling of the lipid carrier, bactoprenol
SXT
Sulfamethoxaxole-Trimethoprim. Used to tell group a and B strep from other B hemolytic. Non a and not B are sensitive
CAMP
Christie Atkins, Munch-Peterson. co-hemolysin factor, group B positive
Hippurate test
positive for group B strep. detects hippuricase enzyme
PYR hydrolysis test
group a and enterococci. detedts pyrrolidonyl arylamidase
Bile esculin test
group d strep and enterococci. bile inhibits growth of other gram _ and azide inhibits growth of other gram -
Optochin and Bile solubility
optochin = antimetabolite. S. pneumoniae positive
Salt tolerance test
6.5% NaCl. enterococcus are salt tolerant. Streptococci are salt sensitive
What DNA based diagnostic assays will detect - streptococci
primers emm and ply
PCR-RFLP
Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. short internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rRNA genes.
Multiplex PCR
Polymerase Chain reaction. uses primers from several genes simultaneously.
RAPD analysis
Random Amplified Polymophic Dna
SDS-PAGE
Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate - Polyacrilamide Gel Electrophoresis
Where do enterococcus come from?
(changed in 1980 revamp) In bergey's manual 1st edition they were included in the genus Streptococcus in Lancefield Antigen group D
Classification of Entercoccus
Domain: Bacteria. Phylum: firmicutes. Class: Bacilli. Order: Lactobacillales. Family: Enteroscoccaceae
Vagococcus
One of the 4 genera of enterococcaceae. formly group N streptococci. motile
General Properities of Enterococci
Same as Streptococcaceae
Natural Habitats of Enterococci
mammal GI tract. Bird GI tract. E. mudtii and E. casseliflavus (both yellow pigmentation) are plant-associated.
What are the pathogenic bac of enterococci?
trick question! there's only one--- E. faecalis
E. facalis pathogenesis
AS - Aggregation substance - adhesion to euk cells and antiphagocytic. Lipoteichoic acids (polygercerol an for adhesin). Extra cellular superoxide anion production - damages tissue. Cytolysin - (works against RBC, WBC and some gram + bacteria
Enterococcus clinical significance
bacteremia, endocarditis, endophthalmitis (intraocular infection), endodontic infections
Enterococcus ranks second to staphylococcus as a cause of
nosocomial infections
Enterococcus treatment
cell-wall active agent (penicillin or vancomycin) + aminoglycoside (gentamicin or streptomycin)
Enterococcus resistance
penicillin (PBP), aminoglyceride by aminoglycoside enzymes, and vancomycin (modify target)
Enterococci growth
usually grown on blood agar. E faecalis is large colonies Beta or gamma. E faecium colonies are small and alpha hemolytic
ID enterococci
presense of group D antigen, grow in harsh envs (6.5% NaCl, pH 9.6, 10C - 45C)
Tests that are positive for enterococci
(RAV-BEL) Voges-proskaeur, Leucine amino peptidase, Esculin hydrolysis, bile resistant, acid from ribose
Tests negative for enterococci
Urease, Acid from xylulose
DNA-based diagnostic assays for enterococci
ddl, tuf, cpn60, and cpn10