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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
monomer of microfilaments
helical polymer fo microfilaments
lag phase of actin polymerization
formation of actin trimer (nucleation site)
Actin-binding proteins
versatile family of proteins that crosslink actin filaments into loose gells, bind them into stiff bundles, attach to PM, or move them
minimyosin (myosin 1)
motor protein of actin filaments in non-muscle cells
protein that crosslinks actin filaments into gel
protein that crosslinks filaments to PM by their sides
protein that bundles actin filaments
α actinin
protein that bundles actin filaments and links actin filament to viniculin at focal contacts
gel solin
calcium dependent protein that severs or fragments actin filaments
protein that caps the positive end of actin
protein that binds actin monomers and inhibits polymerization
drug that blocks cell movement by binding to + end of actin to block polymerization and inhibit motility, phagocytosis, organelle and vesicle trafficking and production of lamellipodia and filopodia
Focal contacts
place that actin attaches the cell PM to extracellular matrix
family of transmembrane proteins that link ECM's fibronectin w/ cytoplasmic actin filaments of stress fibers with attachment proteins
protein that links viniculin to integrin at focal contacts
protein that links α actinin to talin at focal contacts
integrins linkage at focal contacts
transmembrane protein that links talin to fibronectin
protein mainly responsible for attaching the spectrin cytoskeleton to red cell PM
thin stiff protrusions of the cell surface that form and reform quickly and contain a bundle of actin filaments
thin sheetlike processes of cell surface made of actin filament involved in cell movement
dimer of α and β tubulin. The subunit of microtubules
long parallel rows into which tubulin molecules align; 13 make a microtubule
motor protein family that move along microtubules. Associated with ER
motor protein family that move toward the α end of microtubules. Ciliary and cytoplasmic varietys exist and are associated with the golgi
antimitotic drug which binds to free tubulin and prevents polymerization
antimitotic drug which binds to microtubules and prevents depolymerization
ring shaped structure of centrosome which acts as the nucleation-site of a microtubule
dynamic instability
property of microtubules based on rapid polymerization and depolymerization (if GTP of plus end is hydrolyzed before the next tubulin is added)
pair of cylindrical microtubule structures in the centrosome
arrangement of microtubules in centrioles
9 + 0
arrangement of microtubules in cilia
9 + 2
basal bodies
accumulation of centrioles beneath the PM which initiate tubulin polymerization to form the axoneme of cilia or flagella
arrangement of microtubules in basal bodies
9 + 0
core of each cilium with 9 microtubule doublets around a pair of unjoined mt's
ciliary dynein
protein that forms the arms that extend from subfiber A and hydrolyze ATP to generate a sliding force that moves cilia
protein that forms bridges to link adjacent doublets in axonemes
radial spokes
link the doublets to the sheath in axonemes
surrounds the central microtubule pair of axonemes
effective stroke
stiff rapid forward stroke of cilia
recovery stroke
slower bending stroke of cilia
cytoplasmic IF in epithelial cells and their derivatives
IF in cytoplasm of cells of mesenchymal origin
IF in cytoplasm of neurons
IF in nucleus
protein in epidermis of skin that bundles keratin IF into tonofilaments
bundles of keratin IF
What are the 3 types of proteins assemblies in the cytoskeleton
microfilaments, microtubules and intermediate filament
Where is the highest concentration of microfilaments
cortex (just beneath PM)
What does nucleotide hydrolysis promote in F-Actin?
What are the three phases of polymerization of actin?
1) Lag phase 2) Growth (polymerization) 3) steady state (treadmilling)
What are the 3 forms of association that actin bundles can have?
contractile, gel-like networks and parallel bundles
What is the function of microfilaments in the cell cortex?
mechanical strength, cell shape and locomotion
What is dispatched in response to an antibody binding to its receptor?
Cell migration requirements
actin, microtubules, intermediate filaments and PM
What stimulates calcium release from storage vesicles into the cytosol during the gelsol state of the cortical cytoplasm?
What two proteins are used to for the gelsol state during psuedopod formation?
GELSOLIN fragments the actin filaments, and PROFILIN inhibits repolymerization
How does a cell travel across a surface?
CELL CRAWLING: 1) Protrusion of leading edge 2) attachment btwn leading edge and surface 3) traction-attached edge pulls cell forward
What are the two types of directional motors for locomotion?
Actin based and microtubule based
How does microtubule based locomotion work?
active transport of membrane vesicles to the leading edge
What is required for microtubule polymerization
GTP and Mg++
what labile microtubules are stabilized by
attaching to another molecule or cell structure
examples of stable microtubules
centrioles, basal bodies, cilia, and flagella
functions of cilia
movement of mucus along conducting airways of respiratory system, transportation of oocytes, movement of sperm through efferent ducts
rhythm of Cilia
the toughest and most durable cytoskeletal filament
intermediate filament
main function of intermediate filament
withstand mechanical stress when cells stretched
where can intermediate filaments be found
cell-cell junctions, nucleus
which form of protein assemblies don't require energy
intermediate filament
which cytoskeletal proteins have polarity
microfilaments, and microtubules