Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
CD14 recognizes what?
TLRs activate what downstream?
Proteins that bind intracellularly to TLR receptors are related to what pathway?
IL-1 signalling pathway
Can a cell have more than one TLR?
LPS binds to what three things?
CD14, MD2 and TLR4
What does C Reactice protein do?
Opsonin and is involved in complement.
Cytokines in innate immunity are produced by what?
Macrophages and NK cells
Cytokines in adaptive immunityare produced by?
The innate cytokines are? They are inhibited by what?
1. IL-1 TNF and IL-12
2. Corticosteroids
What predominantly activates TNF?
What are the two TNF receptors and what are their finctions?
1. TNFR-1: transcription and apoptosis
2. TNFR-2: transcription
TNF and IL-1 are endogenous...
At very high concentrations (septic shock) of TNF and IL-1 you see...
Myocardial contractility, profound vasodilation, thrombosis, severe metabolic disturbance.
What two diseases are treated with TNF antibodies? What is a complication of this therapy?
1. Rheumatoid Arthritis and Crohn’s Disease
2. Susceptibility to infection, especially TB and histoplasmosis
What stimulates IL-1?
Unlike TNF, IL-1 is lacking what effect?
What cytokine is most involved in the bridge between innate and adaptive immunity?
How is IL-12 produced?
IL-12 causes an increase in the production of what by T cells?
What does IL-12 do in terms of differentiation?
It causes T cells to differentiate into TH1 cells
Type 1 interferons include? What are they used to treat?
INF-Alpha - Made by one cell type
INF-Beta - made by many cells

They are used to treat viral infections like Hep C and they can also be used to treat MS
INF-Gamma is produced by what type of cells? What does it bind to? What does it do?
1. NK cells and TH1 cells
2. Type 1 receptor that activates Stat-1
3. It activates macrophages by inducing the production of activated oxygen and nitrogen radicals. It is especially important in killing intracellular pathogens.
This IL is an inhibitor of immune activation and tends to decrease macrophage activation.
This IL increases acute phase proteins and increases neutrophil production and is inhibitory to the adaptive response while promoting the innate response.
This IL is an early stimulant for Nk proliferation in viral infection.
This IL synergizes with Il-12 to increase IFN-gamma production.