Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/15

Click to flip

15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is nuclear radiation (as opposed to other types like electromagnetic)?
Radiation that emanates from the nucleus of an atom.
Name the three types of nuclear radiation (not positron emission - that is studied at A level).
Alpha, beta and gamma.
What is the composition of an alpha particle?
It is a helium nucleus - two protons and two neutrons held together by the strong nuclear force.
What is the composition of a beta particle?
It is a very fast moving electron - an electron with high kinetic energy.
What is the composition of a gamma ray?
It is made up of high energy photons of electromagnetic energy.... pure energy - no matter.
What is the charge of a beta particle?
It has a negative charge - a charge of -1 (At A level you learn to put that into coulombs... -1.6 X 10^-19C - at GCSE you just call it -1)
What is the charge of an alpha particle?
It has a positive charge - a charge of +2... as it has two protons in it (At A level you learn to put that into coulombs.... +3.2 X 10^-19C - at GCSE you just call it +2)
What is the charge of a gamma ray?
Zero - electromagnetic radiation has no charge.
Which is the most penetrating form of nuclear radiation?
Gamma
Which is the least penetrating form of nuclear radiation?
Alpha
Which is the most densely ionizing form of nuclear radiation?
Alpha
Which is the least densely ionizing form of nuclear radiation?
Gamma
What happens inside the nucleus when alpha emission occurs?
A bound packet of nucleons (2 protons and 2 neutrons) is ejected from the nucleus of the parent atom leaving a daughter nucleus behind with 2 less protons and 4 less nucleons.
What happens inside the nucleus when beta emission occurs?
A neutron within the nucleus of the parent atom splits to give an electron (which leaves the nucleus as the beta particle) and a proton which stays behind in the nucleus and replaces the neutron. The daughter nucleus therefore has one more proton than the parent but the same number of nucleons.
What happens inside the nucleus when gamma emission occurs?
The nucleons rearrange themselves into a more stable arrangement - the excess energy is given out in the form of electromagnetic energy - the gamma ray.