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185 Cards in this Set

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RUQ organs.
Liver, Kidney, Colon, Pancreas, GALLBLADDER
LUQ organs.
Liver, SPLEEN, Kidney, STOMACH, Colon, Pancreas
RLQ organs.
Kidney, Colon, Small Intestines, Major Artery and Vein, Ureter, APPENDIX.
LLQ organs.
Kidney, Colon, Small Intestines, Major Artery and Vein, Ureter.
Ligament
Bone to bone.
Tendon
Muscle to bone.
Cartilage
Covers the ends of bones at joints.
Maxillae
Fused bones of upper jaw.
Zygomatic arches
Cheek bones
Cervical Vertebrae
7 neck bones
Thoracic vertebrae
12 vertebrae of the upper back.
Lumbar vertebrae
5 vertebrae of the lower back.
Sacral vertebrae
5 vertebrae of the pelvis
Coccyx vertebrae
4 vertebrae of the tailbone.
Xiphoid process
Inferior portion of the sternum.
Manubrium
Superior portion of the sternum.
Ilium
Superior and widest portion of the pelvis
Ischium
Inferior and posterior portions of the pelvis.
Pubis
Medial anterior portion of the pelvis.
Acetabulum
Pelvic socket of which the ball at the proximal end of the femur fits to form the hip joint.
Malleolus
protrusions at the sides of the ankle. Medial and lateral malleolus.
Acromion process
Highest portion of the shoulder.
Acromioclavicular joint
Joint at the acromion process and clavicle.
Automaticity
the ability of the heart to generate and conduct electrical impulses on its own.
Epiglottis
a leaf shaped structure preventing food from entering the trachea.
Larynx (what is above and below)
Voice box. Above Trachea. Below Epiglottis and Pharynx.
Cricoid cartilage
Ring like structure forming the lower portion of the larynx. Below the Thyroid cartilage.
Autonomic nervous system
division of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary motor functions.
Peripheral nervous system
Sensory nerves and motor nerves.
Liver
Produces bile and assists in breakdown of fats and general metabolism.
Gallbladder
Sac on the underside of the liver that stores bile.
Pancreas
Gland located behind the stomach that produces insulin and aids in digestion in the duodenum of the small intestine.
Spleen
Organ that acts as the blood filtration system and reservoir for reserves of blood.
Appendix
Small tube located near the junction of the small and large intestines. Unsure what it does.
Subcutaneous skin layer
Layers of fat and soft tissue found below the dermis.
Dermis skin layer
Inner layer of skin rich in blood vessels and nerves. Beneath the Epidermis.
Endocrine system
The system of glands that produce chemicals and hormones that help regulate bodily functions.
Insulin
A hormone produced by the pancreas.
NC range and % delivered
1-6 lpm, 24-44%
NRB range and % delivered
12-15 lpm, 80-90%
3 symptoms of a heat stroke
Aside from the pt being in a hot environment:

Hot and dry skin.
Dilated pupils.
Tachycardia or arrhythmia
AMS
Seizures
5 things that can cause seizures
Epilepsy
Head Trauma
Hypoxia
Hypoglycemia
Hypoperfusion
CVA
Drugs/alcohol
Fever
110 lbs to kg
50 kg
220 lbs to kg
100 kg
5 reasons your pulseox can be wrong
It's broken
Hypothermia
Hypoperfusion
CO poisoning
Anemic
Vaso Constriction
Hemaglobin Abnormality
Lung sound: Crowing
Sounds like a Crow's caw.
Indicates muscles of the larynx are spasming and beginning to narrow the trachea
Larynx (above below)
Voice box. Above Trachea, below Pharynx.
Which one is the Fibula?
Lateral, smaller.
How many Sacral?
5 fused vertebrae of the posterior pubis.
Cervical spine
Seven vertebrae of the neck
Pulmonary Vein flows _______ blood into the Left _________ from the ________.
oxygenated, atrium, lungs.
Edema
Swelling caused by accumulation of fluid in tissue
What is an Olecranon?
Part of the Ulna that makes the point of the elbow.
Hydrostatic pressure
Pressure against the inside of blood vessels.
Hemoglobin is?
A protein found ont he surface of red blood cells responsible for binding O2.
CNS
Central Nervous System. The brain and spinal cord.
Libel
Injuring a person's name through writing or media with malicious intent or reckless disregard
Metacarpals
Bones of the hand (palm area)
Vena Cavae carry _______ blood into the Right ________ from the _________.
unoxygenated, atrium, rest of the body.
Decorticate posturing is? Means?
Back arched, arms flexed inward to chest.

Indicates a serious brain injury.
Transverse Plane
Separates the body into superior and inferior.
Coronal plane
Separates body into anterior and posterior. Or into dorsal and ventral.
Midsagittal plane
Separates the body into Left and Right
Describe expiration.
Exhalation. Passive. Intercostals and Diaphragm relax. Diaphragm raises.
Describe inspiration.
Inhalation. Active. Intercostals and diaphragm contract. Diaphragm lowers.
Expressed consent
Permission from a conscious and mentally competent adult.
Defamation
Intentional false communication damaging a reputation.
Mottling
Splotchy skin pattern. A sign of shock.
Shock
Insufficient supply of oxygen and other nutrients to body because of poor circulation.
Informed consent
Permission by a competent adult based on full disclosure of risks and consequences.
Axilla
Armpit.
Carina
Where trachea splits into left and right main stem bronchi.
Metatarsals
Bones in foot arches.
Calcaneus
Heel bone
BP per age equations.
80+(2*age)=systolic
2/3(systolic)=diastolic
Birth is immanent when contractions are ____________ minutes apart and last _______.
2-3 minutes apart, lasting 30-40 seconds.
Newborn pulse
120-160 bpm.
Newborn breaths
30-50 /minute
Amount of blood in:
9 lb newborn
60 lb child
125 lb adult
12 oz newborn
2 liter child
4 liter adult
Artificial ventilation rate for:
newborn (0-1)
child (1-puberty)
adult (puberty+)
12-20 neonate
12-20 child
10-12 adult
Croup is what? Symptoms are?
Viral illness in children (6 mo - 4 y/o)
Fever
Seal bark
Cyanosis
Epiglottitis is? Symptoms are?
Inflammation of the epiglottis (3 - 7 y/o)

Sudden onset fever
painful swallowing
tripod
stillness
Meningitis is? Symptoms are?
Bacterial or Viral infection of the brain and/or spinal cord (1 - 5 y/o)

high fever
lethargy
irritability
headache
stiff neck
light sensitivity
bulging fontanels
seizures
Pediatric CPR ratio > 1 y/o
30:2 - 1 rescuer
15:2 - 2 rescuer
Pediatric Trauma Center
Johns Hopkins Children Center
#704
Eye Trauma Center
Wilmer Eye Institute
@ Johns Hopkins
#705
Neurotrauma Center
STC #735
Hyperbaric Medical Center
STC #734
Hand/Extremity Trauma Center
Curtis National Hand Center
@ Union Memorial
#714
Burn Center
Bayview
#701
6R's
Right Patient
Right Medication
Right Dose
Right Route
Right Date
Right Documentation
Hypoxia ranges. Mild - Severe
Mild 91-94%
Moderate 86-90%
Severe less than 85%
Hyperventilate Head trauma @ what rate?

Adult
Child
Infant
Adult 20
Child 30
Infant 35
cytokine
protein produced by a white blood cell that instructs neighboring cells to respond in a genetically preprogrammed fashion.
cytoplasm
thick fluid that fills a cell
cytoskeleton
structure of protein filaments that support a cell's internal structure.
cytosol
clear liquid portion of the cytoplasm in a cell
cytotoxic
poisonous to cells
erythrocyte
red blood cell
granulocyte
white cell with multiple nuclei that has the appearance of a bag of granules
leukocyte
white blood cell
lymphocyte
a type of leukocyte (white blood cell) that attacks foreign substances as a part of the body's immune response.
monocyte
white blood cell with a single nucleus, the largest normal blood cell
phagocyte
a cell that has the ability to ingest other cells and substances such as bacteria and cell debris.
phagocytosis
ingestion and digestion of bacteria and other substances by phagocytes
thrombocyte
blood cell responsible for clotting, also called a platelet.
atp
adenosine triphosphate - high energy compound present in all cells especially muscle cells. when split by enzyme action it yields energy. energy is stored in atp.
rough endoplasmic reticulum
network of small channels that functions in building of proteins.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
a network of small channels that functions in the synthesis of lipids, some of which are used in the formation of cell membranes and carbohydrates.
Golgi apparatus
located near the nucleus usually. performs a variety of functions including synthesis and packaging of secretions such as mucus and enzymes
mitochondria
convert essential nutrients into energy. often in the form of atp.
lysosomes
contain digestive enzymes. protection against disease and production of nutrients. breaking down bacteria and organic debris that has been taken into the cells and yielding thereby usable substances such as sugars and amino acids.
perixisomes
similar to lysosomes. especially abundant in the liver. they absorb and neutralize toxins such as alcohol.
where does epithelial tissue live?
it lines internal and external body tissues. examples: skin, lining of intestinal tract, mucous membranes.
endocrine system
control system. works closely with nervous system. controls hormones.
lymphatic system
bodies defense against disease, helps with filtration and removing waste products of cellular metabolism.
icf
intracellular fluid - fluid inside the body cells.
ecf
extracellular fluid - fluid outside the cells. comprised of intravascular fluid and interstitial fluid.
intravascular fluid
the fluid within the circulatory system. blood plasma.
interstitial fluid
fluid in the body tissues that is outside the cells and outside the vascular system
turgor
normal tension in a cell. the resistance of the skin to deformation.
percent of body that is hydrogen
62
percent of the body that is oxygen
26
percent of the body that is carbon
10
percent of the body that is nitrogen
1.5
percent of the body that is not H, O, C, N
0.5
ion
is an atom that has lost one or more electrons and has a positive charge as a result.
anion
is an atom that has lost one or more protons and has a negative charge as a result.
NaCl
sodium chloride - table salt
H2CO3
Carbonic Acid.
electrolytes
substances that form ions/anions when they break down, or dissociate in water.
cation
positively charged ion
isotonic
equal in concentration of solute and molecules; solutions may be isotonic to each other.
hypertonic
having a greater concentration of solute molecules. one solution may be hypertonic to another.
hypotonic
having a lesser concentration of solute molecules. one solution may be hypotonic to another.
osmotic gradient
the difference in concentration between solutions on opposite sides of a semipermeable membrane
diffusion
the movement of molecules through a membrane from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration.
bicarbonate
HCO3-

bicarbonate is the principle buffer of the body. it neutralizes the highly acidic hydrogen ion, etc.
phosphate
HPO4-

Phosphate is important in body energy stores. it is closely associated with magnesium in Renal function.
osmosis
the passage of a solvent such as water through a membrane
active transport
movement of a substance though a cell membrane against the osmotic gradient; that is, from an area of lesser to greater concentration. opposite of normal diffusion.
facilitated diffusion
diffusion of a substance such as glucose through a cell membrane that requires the assistance of a helper, or carrier protein. also called carrier mediated diffusion
osmolality
the concentration of solute per KILOGRAM of water
osmolarity
the concentration of solute per LITER of water
osmotic pressure
the pressure exerted by the concentration of solutes on one side of a membrane that, if hypertonic, tends to pull water from the other side.
oncotic force
a form of osmotic pressure exerted by the large protein particles or colloids, present in blood plasma. in the capillaries, the plasma colloids tend to pull water from the interstitial space across the capillary membrane into the capillary. oncotic force is also called colloid osmotic pressure.
hydrostatic pressure
blood pressure or force against a vessel wall created by a heartbeat. hydrostatic pressure tends to force water out of the capillaries into the interstitial space.
hairy navel
2 count peach schnapps
2 count vodka
balance orange juice
serve in a tall glass
net filtration
the total loss of water from blood plasma across the capillary membrane into the interstitial space. normal hydrostatic pressure forcing water out of the capillary is balanced by an oncotic force pulling water into the capillary for a net filtration of 00000000.
pH
potential of Hydrogen - a measure of relative acidity or alkalinity. since ph scale is inverse to the concentration of acidic hydrogen ions, the lower the ph, the greater the acidity and higher the ph the greater the alkalinity. a normal ph is from 7.35 - 7.45.
acidosis
a high concentration of hydrogen ions. ph below 7.35
alkalosis
a low concentration of hydrogen ions. a phy above 7.43.
what is the ph buffer
bicarbonate.

HCO3- = bicarbonate ion
H2CO3 = carbonic acid
inhalation does what to ph?
lowers the ph
exhalation does what to ph?
raises the ph
sebum
fatty secretions of the sebaceous gland that helps keep the skin pliable and waterproof.
dermis
corium. true skin. the layer of tissue producing the epidermis and housing the structures, blood vessels, and nerves normally associated with the skin.
sudoriferous glands
glands within the dermis that secrete sweat
what are the parts of the hematopoietic system?
blood, bone marrow, liver, spleen and kidneys.
what is the hematopoietic system
body system having to do with the production and development of blood cells, consisting of the bone marrow, liver, spleen, kidneys and bloooooooood.
pluripotent stem cell
a cell from which the various types of blood cells can form
hematopoiesis
the process through which pluripotent stem cells differentiate into various types of blood cells
erythropoietin
the hormone responsible for red blood cell production.
what color is plasma?
yellow
hemoglobin
oxygen bearing molecule in the red blood cells. it is made up of iron rich red pigment called heme and a protein called globin
PO2
partial pressure of oxygen. partial pressure is the pressure exerted by a given component of a gas containing several components
PCO2
partial pressure of carbon dioxide.
2,3-DPG
2,3 diphosphoglycerate.

chemical in the red blood cells that affects hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen.
bohr effect
phenomenon in which a decrease in PCO2/acidity causes an increase in the quantity of oxygen that binds with the hemoglobin. conversely, an increase in PCO2/acidity causes the hemoglobin to give up a greater quantity of oxygen.
erythropoiesis
the process of producing red blood cells
hemolysis
destruction of red blood cells
sequestration
the trapping of red blood cells by an organ such as the spleen
hematocrit
the packed cell volume of red blood cells per unit of blood
leukocyte
white blood cell
chemotaxis
the movement of white blood cells in response to chemical signals
phagocytosis
process in which white blood cells engulf and destroy an invader
leukopoiesis
the process through which stem cells differentiate into the white blood cell's immature forms
3 types of leukocytes
monocytes, granulocytes, and lymphocytes.
major basic protein
a larvacidal peptide
neutropenia
a low neutrophil count
autoimmune disease
a disease in which the body makes antibodies against its own tissues. that suuuuuuuuuux.
fibrinolysis
the process through which plasmin dismantles a blood clot
thrombosis
clot formation which is extremely dangerous when it occurs in coronary arteries or cerebral vasculature.
haversian canals
small perforations of the long bones through which the blood vessels and nerves travel into the bone itself
osteocyte
bone forming cell found in the bone matrix that helps maintain the bone. microtrauma is gooooooood.