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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Central Nervous System Medications include..(9)
-analgesics and antagonists
-anti-anxiety and sedative-hypnotic drugs
-antiseizure or anti epileptic drugs
-central nervous system stimulants
-psychotherapeutic medications
Non-narcotic analgesics and anti-inflammatory agents
3 examples and used for?
-used for mild to moderate pain
Narcotic analgesics are used for what? 1 example?
used for visceral pain and discomfort
opium derivatives
Opioids definition and functions
-similar to opium
-extracted from poppy plant and has been used for centuries for its analgesic and hallucinogenic effects
-treats pain b/c similarity to natural pain reducing peptides(endorphins)
-fx by decreasing the sensory neurons ability to propagate pain impulses to the spinal cord and brain
-prototype drug is morphine
Opioid antagonists do what?
reverse the effects of opioid drugs
naloxone(narcan) is prototype
Anesthetics do what?
induce a state of anesthesia or a loss of sensation to touch or pain
Local anesthetics are administered where and why?
one example
-to block sensation for medical procedures
-agent is admin. into skin around the nerves that innervate the area of the procedure
-decreases nerve ability to depolarize and propagate impulse to the brain
example xylocaine(lidocaine)
state of decreased anxiety and inhibitions
instigation of sleep
categorized as REM or non REM
REM sleep is characterized as rapid eye movement and lack of motor control
most dreaming occurs during REM sleep
Mechanism of Action of Benzodiazepines and barbiturates
hyperpolarize the membrane of the CNS neurons decreasing the response to pain
Benzodiazepines(antianxiety agents) four actions?
what schedule and why?
anxiety reducing
sedative hypnotics
muscle relaxing
all are schedule IV b/c of potential for abuse
Commonly prescribed Benzodiazepines(7)
the antagonistic drug(antianxiety and sedative hypnotic drug), Flumazenil(romazicon) does what?
competitively binds with the benzodiazepine receptors in the GABA receptor chloride ion channel without causing the effects of benzodiazepines
reverses the sedation of benzo's
Amphetamines do what?
increase the release of excitatory neurotransmitters including norepinephrine and dopamine
Norepinephrine drug effects include (3)
example of?
wakefulness, increased awareness, decreased appetite
example: Dexedrine
an agent that prevents or relieves nausea and vomiting
Dopamine is _________and acetycholine is ____________ to the nervous system
dopamine is inhibitory
acetylcholine is excitatory to the nervous system
Drugs affecting the parasympathetic system
ganglionic blocking agents
neuromuscular blocking agents
ganglionic stimulating agents
drugs affecting the sympathetic system
adrenergic receptors
adrenergic agonists
adrenergic antagonists
skeletal muscle relaxants
Cholinergic drugs act how? (2 ways)
examples of each
-directly-direct acting cholinergics stimulate the effects of acetycholine by directly binding to cholinergic receptors, prototype-bethanechol(urecholine)
-indirect-inhibit action of degrading acetycholine prolonging the cholinergic response, neostigmine is prototype reversible cholinesterase inhibitor, physostigmine is a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor
anticholinergics do what
oppose the parasympathetic nervous system
muscarinic cholinergic antagonists do what?
two examples
block the effects of acetylcholine almost exclusively at the muscarinic receptors
often called-anticholinergics or parasympatholytics
atropine is prototype
scopolamine is anticholinergic used to prevent motion sickness
Neuromuscular blockade description and one example
produces a state of paralysis without affecting consciousness
caused by competitive antagonism of nicotine receptors at the neuromuscular junction
useful during surgery and to facilitate emerg intubation
depolarizing or nonpolarizing(most)
succinylcholine(rapid acting short half life)
Golden rule of management
treat the patient not the monitor
Causes of dysrhythmias
-MI, necrosis, infarct
-autonomic nervous system imbalance
-distention of the chambers of the heart
-blood gas abnormalities
-electrolyte imbalance
-trauma to the myocardium
-drug effects and drug toxicity
-CNS damage(vagus)
-idiopathic events
-normal occurances
Dysrhytmias-4 mechanisms of impulse formation
disturbance in automaticity
disturbance in conductivity
combination of altered automaticity and conductivity
ectopic foci-ectopic beats
chronotropic drugs do what?
two examples
affect heart rate
+ chrono=epinephrine
- chrono=verapamil
dromotropic drugs do what?
two examples
affect conduction velocity through the conduction tissues of the heart
+ dromo=isoproterenol
- dromo=adenosine
inotropic agents do what?
two examples
affects force of contraction
positive inotropic increase force of contraction=epinephrine
negative inotropic weakens or decreases the force of contraction=propranolol