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70 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
List the WBCs in order of most to least.
neutrophils (60-80)
lymphocytes (20)
monocytes (3-8)
eosinophils (1-6)
basophils (0-2)
What would the WBC and neutrophil count be for a pt with an acute bacterial infection.
WBC 18,000
N 83%
Where are the adenoids located?
near the tonsils
Where are the Peyer's patches located?
in the intestinal walls of the gut
What cellular components make up granulocytes?
neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils
-attracted to areas of inflammation
What does "shift to the left" mean?
means there is an increased number of neutrophils
<1000 neutrophils is called:
-allergic rxns
-parasitic infections
-allergies, releases histamine from mast cells
What eventually becomes macrophages?
-powerful phagocytes
-engulf bacteria
-last for months
-prominent in late inflammation
-made of t-cells and b-cells
-reside in lymph sites (nodes, etc)
-make up 80% of lymphocytes
-activate B-cells
-can phagotcytize or kill
3 kinds of T-lymphocytes:
1. helper (immunity cells)
2. suppressor (keep immune system balanced)
3. cytotoxic (killer cells)
-memory cells
-make up 20% of lymphocytes
-differentiate to plasma cells to produce antibodies
complement system:
-important to immunity and inflammation
-made up of protein plasmas
-synthesized in the liver
-lysis foreign cells
-active in the inflammatory process
-triggered by pain
What are the 2 stem cell pathways?
1. myeloid
2. lymphoid
-play an active role in the inflammatory process (pain,vasodilation)
=to stop bleeding
-activates complement and kinins
-12 coagulation factors
-prevents antigens from disseminating
Ex: lymphokines, interleukins, interferons
-increase lysis target cells and activate other cells
-polypeptides produced by immune cells
-inhibit viruses
-stimulate T and B cells
inflammatory process:
-neutralize and destroy pathogens
-limit spread of harmful agents
-prepare damaged tissue for repair
Causes of inflammation:
1. exogenous (surgery, trauma, burns, chemicals on skin)
2. endogenous (MI, pulm embolism)
Is there always inflammation with an infection?
Is there always an infection with inflammation?
no, allergies and sprains
List the chemicals that respond to inflammation.
1. histamine
2. prostaglandins (pain)
3. cytokines
4. enzymes (from granulocytes and macrophages)
increases vascular dilation and permeability
List the acute vascular responses to inflammation:
-initial quick vasoconstriction followed by vasodilation
-moves fluids to tissues
-toxins are diluted
-platelets form
-lymphatic blockage (walls off area)
List the acute cellular responses to inflammation:
-neutrophils create inflammed tissue (diapedesis)
-attracted by inflamed tissue (toxins, complement)
passage of blood cells (especially white blood cells) through intact capillary walls and into the surrounding tissue
What part of the body has the most fiberblasts and tissue?
ligaments - used for strength and support
List the chronic cellular responses to inflammation.
-due to infiltration of macrophages
-leads to persistent inflammation, fibroblast proliferation, scar formation (granulation tissue)
Is gas gangrene aerobic or anaerobic?
Which leukemia is common among children?
acute lymphocytic leukemia
What is a consequence of chemotherapy?
kills the immune system
What treatment methods are used for cancer?
surgery, radiation, chemotherapy
Most fungal infections are ___.
What are the 4 manifestations of infection?
1. inflammatory response
2. phagocytosis (eats debris)
3. interferons (fights virus)
4. fever
Example of natural active immunity:
Example of natural passive immunity:
acquired thru breastmilk (IgA)
Example of artificial active immunity:
vaccine (long-term)
Example of artificial passive immunity:
IgG (short-term) such as anti-venom or anti-rabies
3 Ways the healing process occurs:
1. fibroblasts (makes collagen)
2. new capillaries (nutrient)
3. regeneration of cells
3 exceptions for the regeneration of cells:
1. heart muscle
2. nerve cell bodies
3. skeletal muscle
3 functions of inflammatory excudates:
-transport leukocytes and antibodies
-dilutes toxins and irritants
-transports nutrients for repair
4 types of inflammatory fluids:
1. serous
2. fibrinous (more protein)
3. purulent (pus) from infection
4. hemorrhagic
3 types of T-cells:
1. helper cells (C4)
2. suppressor (T8)
3. Killer (cytotoxic)
-memory cells and plasma cells
-antibodies (latter)
-antigen-antibody specificity
-act as antitoxins
-neutralize viruses
-opsonization (capsulization)
What is the most common type of antibody?
IgG by 70-75%
crosses the placenta
blood supply:
circulation in the body
ex: diabetes is known as the small blood volume disease
-tissues need O2 to be healthy
-anaerobic and aerobic bacteria
-failure of immune system to recognize own cells
-body attacks and destroys cells
-more common in women
juvenile diabetes:
in children, body attacks ilet cells all of a sudden
Exs of autoimmune diseases:
1. Lupus erythematosis
2. Grave's disease
3. Myasthenia gravis
4. Diabetes mellitus
5. Rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis:
-inflammatory arthritis
-affects children and young adults
-body attacks senovial lining of the joints and causes inflammation
Hyperfunction-Alterations in Immune Function: (4 types)
1. Type I
2. Type II
3. Type III
4. Type IV
Hypofunction-Alterations in Immune Function: (3 types)
1. Primary immunodeficiency disorders
2. HIV and Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
3. Secondary immuno. disorders
Disturbances of endocrine functions can be divided into 2 categories:
1. hyperfunction (excessive hormone production)
2. hypofunction (decline in function due to congenital, damage, inflammation, autoimmune disorder, neoplasia)
Types of primary immunodeficiency disorders:
1. severe dysfunction in infants (immunocompromised)
2. thymic hypoplasia (deficient T cells)
3. failure of b-cells to stimulate plasma cells
Transmission of HIV:
blood, semen, vaginal and cervical secretions, amniotic fluid, breastmilk, sexual contact and IV drug use
Where is HIV not believed to be transferrable?
-urine, saliva, tears, CSF, feces
-routine contact or mosquitoes
What does the T-helper cell count have to be at to detect active HIV?
Became mandatory to test blood for transfusions.
-screening for HIV, tests for antigen
-detects + exposure of HIV for 6-8 wks
-if pt is infected, the antibody will not show up for weeks
Western Blot Test:
confirmation test for HIV
taken if ELISA test is +
opportunistic infections:
what pts actually die from
ex: AIDs pts usually die from pneumonia
Secondary immunodeficiency disorders:
chemotherapy, malnutrition, stress, anesthetics, steroids
Treatment for AIDS:
1. antibiotics and antivirals
2. AZT (Zidovudine)-main tx for aids
3. combination therapy-more side effects, cost