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126 Cards in this Set

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A basic egg custard consists of . . .
eggs
milk or cream
sugar
flavoring
Egg custards are thickened or gelled with . . .
heat, via coagulation of egg proteins
Examples of egg custards are . . .
creme caramel
creme brulee
creme anglais (aka vanilla custard sauce)
variations on basic egg custards include . . .
pumpkin pie
bread pudding
quiches
cheesecakes
As eggs are heated, what happens?
The proteins in whites and yolks denature or unfold
unfolded proteins do what?
move through liquid and bond or aggregate
protein coagulation is sometimes called . . .
protein aggregation
Properly aggregated egg proteins form what?
a strong, yet flexible network that traps water and other liquids
The more eggs are heated, the more they do what?
aggregate

so the network gets more rigid and tight
The egg proteins may overcoagulate, which is sometimes called . . .
curdling
The result of curdling is called . . .
weeping or syneresis, where bits of tough gel float in pools of squeezed out liquid
What happens when cakes absorb squeezed out water?
The cake will shrink to a dry, rubbery toughness because the gelatinizing starches take the water.
It is beneficial to do what about coagulation?
Slow it down
Proteins are also coagulated by what?
Acid
salt
freezing
whipping
drying
Ways to slow down coagulation
dilute the egg with milk or water
Proteins in undiluted eggs coagulate at what temp?
160

dilute the eggs and they coagulate at 180
dilution with milk, sugar, cream makes it more difficult for what to happen in eggs?
proteins to bump into each other and bond

reduces risk of over coagulation
when bonding occurs, you'll get what type of product?
softer, more tender as additional liquid gets trapped in coagulated protein network
egg coagulation requires . . .
TIME

The faster the rate of cooking, the less time needed.
if eggs coagulate too quickly, what happens?
the proteins don't unfold right and are less likely to gel or thicken
to maximize thickening, use . . .
low heat seating and stir constantly
which coagulates at higher temp, yolks or whites?
yolks

whites, whole eggs, yolks
egg yolk proteins are lipoproteins, bonded to fats and emulsifiers, which means?
they make it more difficult for proteins to aggregate
sugar slows what?
protein coagulation in custards by preventing proteins from unfolding
if proteins are slow to unfold, they will be . . .
slow to coagulate
how does sugar cook egg yolks?
pulls water from eggs, drying them, and without water, proteins in yolk get close to each other and bond quickly, as if heat was applied
tempering is . . .
careful addition of one ingredient to another when 2 ingredients start at different temps.
what is the goal of tempering?
avoid damaging either ingredient
to avoid premature cooking of egg proteins, what should you do?
slowly add a small amount of hot liquid to eggs before they get added to the bulk of the milk.

This dilutes without raising temp.
adding sugar to dilute eggs is what?
another way to protect eggs from effects of heat
why are water baths good for baking egg custards?
slows the process and evens out baking so the outside doesn't get tough and curdly before inside is cooked
If enough sugar is present, what happens to coagulation?
It stops completely and baked good will remain raw even after extended baking
Lipids such as fat, oils and emulsifiers interfere with coagulation of egg proteins, so they do what?
slow down coagulation by coating egg proteins.

also tenderize custards
acid does what to coagulation?
speeds it up and lowers the temp at which coagulation happens

Ex: lemon juice, buttermilk
carefully monitor baking times
starches increase the temperature of egg coagulation by doing what?
interfering with the process, slowing it

Ex: Pastry cream must be boiled because of cornstarch but vanilla custard is not.
vanilla custard sauce can curdle at what temp?
185
calcium in hard water does what?
strengthens coagulation of egg proteins
stirring eggs as they are heated does what?
constant stirring keeps eggs from aggregating into solid mass. Sauce thickens instead of forming a solid
protease enzymes like those in pineapple do what?
break down egg proteins, so cook out the enzyme first
eclairs and cream puffs are made from a dough called what?
eclair paste, or choux paste, or pate a choux
What does the French name "pate a choux" mean?
cabbage paste
Procedure for eclair paste
1. bring liquid, fat, salt, sugar to boil
2. add flour all at once; stir until forms ball and pulls away from pan
3. let cool to 140 - beat so it cools evenly
4. add eggs one at a time
eclair paste is similar to what?
popover batter even though one is thick and the other thin

both are leavened by steam
heat of oven coagulates what in choux paste?
gluten and egg proteins to set structure
what are 3 ways to test doneness of eclair paste?
1) V test
2) run fingers into a channel for a few seconds
3) stretch test to four inches
eclair paste must be what when piped?
firm enough to hold its shape
for eclair paste start at what oven temp?
425 for 15 minutes, then down to 375
eclair shells must be what before being removed from oven?
firm and dry
Pie fillings require what to come together?
thickeners
what are the 2 most common thickeners for pies?
starches
eggs
cream pies look best with what kind of pie dough?
mealy pie dough

Use warm fillings, which cool to a smooth, uniform mass and give clean cuts
how does chiffon pie get its texture?
from adding beaten egg whites and/or whipped cream
a fruit-based chiffon pie uses what to thicken?
gelatin
when folding in ingredients, when should you do it?
before the gelatin sets
cream pies are the same as what?
pudding or pastry cream
cream pies are made with what thickener?
cornstarch so they hold their shape
how do you test for doneness in custards?
shake the pie gently, and if no longer liquid, it's done.

center may be slightly soft but will cook as it cools. inserted knife an inch from center should come out clean
what is the greatest difficulty in cooking soft pies?
cooking the crust completely without overcooking the filling
tips for cooking soft pies correctly. . .
start at bottom of a hot oven
450 for 10 minutes to set the crust
reduce to 325-350
how is key lime pie different from other custard pies?
it is not baked.
acidity of lime juice cooks it
custards such as pumpkin and pecan pie are made with what?
uncooked liquid containing eggs, and they coagulate during baking
what's important in making an apple pie?
taste, texture
good flavor and acidity
apples should hold their shape
Granny Smith
how does the old-fashioned method for making pie work?
1) mix starch, spices, sugar
2) mix it into the fruit
3) fill unbaked pie shells
4) add lumps of butter
5) cover with top or streusel
what are the drawbacks of using the old-fashioned method when making apple or peach pie?
thickening is hard to control
you have to pile the fruit high to avoid the shrinkage, that leaves a gap between the fruit and the crust
advantage of the cooked juice method?
only the juice gets cooked

less heat and handling of the fruit
when using cans of water or syrup packed fruits, what information do you need to know?
the drained weight of the fruit
syrup pack means what?
fruit is packed in a sugar syrup
water pack means what?
fruit is packed in water it was processed in

Example: sour cherries
heavy pack means what?
fruit is packed in a small amount of water or juice
solid pack means what?
no water is added
what is the cooked fruit method?
everything is cooked together, and then thickened with starch
what is the cooked juice method?
the gel is made separately by cooking the juice, seasonings and thickener, then mixed with fruit
What are the two methods of making pie with fruit?
cooked juice method

cooked fruit method
In a fruit pie, what's the most important ingredient?
solid fruit
what are the functions of a gel in a fruit pie?
bind the fruit
carry flavor of spices
add shine/gloss to improve appearance
other starches you can use as thickeners in fruit pies
cornstarch
tapioca
potato starch
For fruit fillings, a gel consists of . . .
fruit juice
water
sugar
spices
starch thickener
what are fruit fillings?
solid fruit pieces bound by gel
when should you add sugar, acids like lemon juice to the filling?
AFTER the starch or they will affect the starch's ability to thicken
to avoid lumping, what kind of liquid should the starch be mixed with?
COLD liquid or sugar before adding hot material
what is a problem with using cornstarch?
it can settle out before gelatinizing happens.

So use instant, which doesn't have to be cooked
why not use flour for a pie thickener?
it has less thickening power and can cloud the product
why should you use waxy maize when planning for a frozen pie?
it won't break down when frozen
why is waxy maize best for fruit pies?
It's clear when set and makes a soft paste instead of a firm gel
why use cornstarch for cream pies?
it sets up into a firm gel that holds its shape when sliced
pumpkin pie is an example of a custard pie that needs what?
both an egg thickener and a starch sometimes
what does "creme brulee" mean?
burnt cream
You may not need a water bath if what?
the starch content is high
bake in a water bath to do what?
so outside edges don't overcook before the inside is set
bake custards at what temp?
325 or lower to prevent overcooking and curdling
scald milk before beating into eggs to do what?
1) reduce cooking time
2) help cook product more evenly
egg yolks make a richer custard than what?
whole eggs
a baked custard of eggs, milk, sugar and flavorings is baked until what?
eggs coagulate and custard sets

should hold a clean, sharp edge when cut
baked puddings are what?
custards that contain additional ingredients in large quantities.

Ex: bread pudding, rice pudding
mousses, Bavarian creams (meringues, whipped cream) are often bound with?
gelatin
example of a gelatin pudding is?
panna cotta, italian for "cooked cream"
a pudding not thickened with starch or eggs must be stabilized with what?
gelatin
cream puddings are the same as pastry cream. give some examples
coconut
chocolate
butterscotch
what is the difference between cornstarch puddings and cream puddings?
cream puddings are thickened using eggs
cornstarch puddings consist of . . .
milk
sugar
flavorings
cornstarch, sometimes enough to mold it
Ex: blancmange
what are rangetop puddings thickened by?
starch mostly

They have to be boiled to gelatinize
sweet baked custards are used as what?
pie filling or dessert by itself
pastry cream is what?
a stirred custard that has starch thickeners as well as eggs.

can be heated above 185 because of starch
creme anglaise is what?
aka vanilla custard sauce, a stirred custard
an overbaked custard is watery because . . .
moisture separates from toughened protein
do not heat custards higher than what?
185 on the stove

325 in oven
there are 2 basic kinds of custards . . .
stirred (remains pourable)

baked (not stirred)
what is a custard?
a liquid thickened or set by coagulation of egg proteins
there are 2 kinds of dessert puddings . . .
starch thickened

baked

third kind: steamed
3 bases for chiffon
1) thickened with starch
2) thickened with eggs (choc, pump)
3) thickened with both (pastry cream)

ex: lemon chiffon
guidelines for using gelatin
measure accurately
don't use raw pineapple
stir in COLD water
let stand 5 minutes to soften
heat until dissolved
cool until slightly thickened
stir base occasionally
work fast folding in
fill pies
keep refrigerated
where did creme brulee come from?
England and pudding
what chef made a loaf from flour and water only?
Popelini in 1540
What did Jean Avice add to dough?
use of egg to make profiteroles in 1760
what did pate a choux originate from?
pate a chaud, or hot dough
How did Careme change pate a choux?
He added bread flour to strengthen the structure. He fixed the dough to where it is today.
What term refers to the stage of flour and water before eggs are added in pate a choux?
panade
What does "dorer" mean?
to wash with egg
what does "dessecher" mean?
to dry out
what does "quinconce" mean?
stagger the rows
who was Catherine de Medici's chef?
Panterelli
if butter is used to replace all the shortening in pie dough, what's the adjustment in formula?
increase the percentage of fat by about one fourth
to ensure even distribution, when do you add the salt in a pie dough?
dissolve it into the water first
when making a chiffon pie containing egg whites and whipped cream, which do you fold in first?
chefs prefer to fold in the egg white firsts because if cream is added first, there's a danger it will get overbeaten and turn to butter.