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124 Cards in this Set

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Affirmative Action
civil rights laws of 1960s, Executive Order 11246, required organizations doing business with or receiving funds from, the government to increase minority representation in those organizations. In practice, these government mandates applied primarily to businesses receiving (directly or indirectly), government contracts and to education, especially higher education.
black codes
names given to laws passed by southern governments established during the presidency of Andrew Johnson. These laws imposed severe restrictions on freed slaves, such as prohibiting their right to vote, forbidding them to sit on juries, and limiting their right to vote, forbidding them to sit on juries, and limiting their ability to testify against white men or to work in certain occupations. According to these codes, black "vagrants" could be consigned to forced labor.
"black sambo" stereotype
a stereotype portraying black people as childlike, helpless, shuffling, and fumbling.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)
The US Supreme Court decision that declared that segregated schooling was inherently inferior and, hence, violated the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Legislation that outlawed Jim Crow practices in the North and South. It declared that "all persons within the jurisdiction of the US shall be entitled to full and equal enjoyment of the accommodation's, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, public amusement." In Civil Rights Cases (1883), the US Supreme Court declared the 1875 act unconstitutional and asserted that Congress did not have the power to regulate the conduct and transactions of individuals.
Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1968
Legislation passed to eliminate legal and informal discrimination in employment, unions, housing, schools and voting booths.
Fifteenth Amendment (1870)
the amendment that extended suffrage to AAs
Fourteenth Amendment (1868)
the amendment that provided equal protection for all people under the law. It was an extension of an earlier civil rights act designed to overrule the emerging black codes.
Hopwood v. Texas
in this opinion, the 5th circuit court of appeals overturned a ruling that allowed University of Texas School of Law to use "race" as a criterion when evaluating applicants. The court determined that the school did not offer sufficient evidence that the 14th Amendment allowed the consideration of race in favor of Latinos and AAs to detriment of white applicants.
Jim Crow practices
discriminatory practices that began roughly in the late 1890s, when southern states began systematically to codify (or strengthen) in law and state constitutional provisions the subordinate position of AAs in society. AAs were denied access to jobs, education, and housing. Jim Crow also aimed to separate the races in public spaces, such as public schools, parks, accommodations, and transportation.
Keyes v. Denver School District No. 1 (1973)
The US Supreme Court ruled that evidence of governmental action to maintain segregation was sufficient to require desegregation using busing and other means.
Negro colleges
a system of private colleges that emerged in the 1800s as a means to circumvent the exclusion of AAs from private and state colleges in the South
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
US Supreme Court ruled that segregated "separate but equal" - facilities for blacks and whites were not in violation of 13th and 14th amendment.
redlining
informal practices that make it different for residents of integrated neighborhoods or residents of less affluent neighborhoods with large numbers of AAs to secure home mortgages.
Regents of UC v. Bakke (1978)
Alan Bakke, a white male, challenged the validity of a special admissions program at the UC Davis School of Medicine after having twice been denied admission. The US Supreme Court ruled that quotas are illegal and that race cannot be used as the sole criteria for admissions.
reverse discrimination
a term used to emphasize that programs and initiatives designed to redress the effects of past discrimination against members of a subordinate subpopulation often deny some members of the dominant subpopulation equal access to valued resources.
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg Board of Education (1971)
US Supreme Court ruled that busing was an appropriate tool for achieving school integration.
Thirteenth Amendment
abolished slavery
underground railroad
a secret network of abolitionists and humanitarians who helped AAs escape slavery and go North.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
legislation that authorized the US attorney general to send federal examiners to register black voters under circumstances. It suspended all literary tests in states in which less than 50 percent of the voting-age population had been registered or had voted in the 1964 election. Also authorized the US attorney general to challenge the use of poll taxes.
weber v. kaiser aluminum (1979)
United Steelworkers of America and the Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corporation implemented an affirmative action- based training program to increase the number of the company's black skilled craft workers. the US supreme court held that training program was legitimate because the Civil Rights Act of 1964 did not intend to prohibit the private sector from taking effective steps to use "race" as a criterion for hiring.
braceros
Mexican agricultural workers who participated in Bracero program
Bracero Program
a labor contract system started in 1942 to fill the labor shortages in agriculture created by WWII. The Bracero program operated from 1942-1964
community service organization
a community based organization formed in LA to encourage Mexican America participation in local, state, and national elections
"English as the official language" movement
a powerful political movement in the 1980s advocating a constitutional amendment to make English the official language of the US and the elimination of bilingual ballots and bilingual educations. Two major "official English" organizations are US English and English First
G.I. Forum
political organization that advocated for Mexican American war veterans, sought representation in Congress, encouraged voter registration, and focused attention on the segregation of school children
identifiability
the degree to which the members of a subpopulation are visible and readily identifiable. the more distinctive the members of a subpopulation are, the more likely they are to become targets of discrimination
Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986
legislation that prohibited employers from hiring illegal immigrants and established a monitoring system for employer compliance. The amnesty provision offered legal status to persons who 1) had resided continuously in US since Jan 1, 1982 and 2) who could demonstrate that they had worked 90 days or more in designated agricultural labor between May 1985 and May 1986.
Jones Act of 1917
legislation that allowed Puerto Ricans free access to US mainland.
La Raza Unida
organization established in 1970 at a meeting of 300 Mexican Americans at Campestre Hall in Crystal City, Texas, to bring greater economic, social and political self-determination to Mexican Americans in Texas, where they held little or no power in many local and county jurisdictions although they were often in the majority. Jose Angel Guiterrez and Mario Compean, who had helped found MAYO (Mexican American Youth Organization) in 1967, were 2 of the political organizations
Mariel boatlifts/ Marielitos
In 1980, Fidel Castro released 125,000 people from Cuban prisons and mental hospitals, beginning the Mariel boatlifts. The Marielitos were different from earlier wave of Cuban refugees. the majority of Marielitos were single, black, adult males with criminal backgrounds. US processed them at Eglin Air Force Base in Florida. When riots break out, federal troops were called in. Much of the population ended up either departed or imprisoned for crimes or for what eh Bureau of Prisons terms "temporary detention" but many were released into the community, boosting local unemployment rates from 5 to 13%.
Operation Wetback
program launched by US Border Patrol in 1954, targeting Mexican immigrants who did not have papers identifying them as braceros. Congress gave border patrol blanket authority to stop and search.
Orden hijos de America
the order of the the SOns of America- one of the 1st statewide Mexican American civil rights organizations in Texas. The state charter was obtained on Jan 4, 1922. The organizations purpose was to use its "influence in all fields of social, economic, and political action in order to realize the greatest enjoyment possible of all the rights and privileges and prerogatives extended by the American Constitution". It was formed by middle-class Mexican Americans to signal to the white population that they were interested in participating in mainstream American society- even at the expense of accepting negative stereotypes for their behavior.
political machines
political organizations that provided some upward mobility for ethnic minorities in the city. the urban political machine was at the center of a web of relationships typically involving political parties, public office holders seeking favors. Political machines turned our the vote in return for patronage they could distribute to their ethnic constituents.
Texas rangers
a law enforcement organization created in 1835 to protect the Texas republic from Mexicans. Texas rangers were given wide latitude in their treatment of Mexicans and Mexican Americans; as a consequence, beatings, lynching, firing squads and dismemberments were common
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
treaty that concluded the war between US and Mexico and guaranteed to all Mexicans living "new" American territory a number of basic rights; full American citizenship, retention of Spanish as a recognized and legitimate language, political liberty, and ownership of property
US Border Patrol
Federal agency created in 1924 to protect Us from Mexican infiltration, it was given authority by Congress to apprehend persons suspected of illegal entry into US and to search individuals and property within 25 miles of US-Mexico Border
Young Lords
militant organization formed in 190s and committed to struggle for human rights and liberation of Puerto Rico. Young Lords set up community program, published/distributed a newspaper called Palante and produced a weekly radio show of the same name. Addressed issues concerning prisoners, women, working poor, Vietnam war vets and high school students.
9-11
September 11, 2001, the day on which airliners hijacked by Muslim extremists destroyed the World Trade Center in New York, crashed into the Pentagon, and crashed into a field in southwestern Pennsylvania.
hate crimes
crimes of a bias or hostile nature committed against people due to their membership in a specific group, such as due to their membership in a specific group, such as due to their race, color, ethnicity, gender, identity, religion or orientation
Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act
Legislation enacted in 1996 to deter terrorism by making terrorism a federal crime punishable by death.
Department of Homeland Security
federal agency in charge of preventing and responding to terrorist attacks and natural disasters.
Illegal Immigration Act of 1924
legisltaion that established the "national origins quote system" In conjunction with the Immigration Act of 1917, it governed American immigration policy until 1952. The act set limited quotes for southern and eastern European immigrants. The intent was to favor Anglo-Saxons and northern Europeans over all other ethnic groups
Islam
literally meaning "submission to the will of God," this is a monotheistic religion, with the worlds' second largest number of followers, in which members belief that Allah is God and Muhammad was his prophet
Muslim and Islamic extremist
A term applied to those people in the Muslim or Islamic community who further their religious cause or beliefs through means generally thought to be excessive or beyond the norm.
Naturalization Act of 1790
legislation that limited eligibility for US citizenship to "free white persons"
pan-ethnicity
the accumulation of previously separated identified cultural groups into a larger whole category
patriarchy
a social or governmental structure in which men hold the majority of the power.
sojourner orientation
an immigrants intention to make his or her stay in a country temporary
USA Patriot Act of 2001
controversial legislation that gave the Department of justice the tools it needed to investigate both citizens and immigrants from Middle East
Asylees
A person in the US or at a port of entry who is found to be unable or unwilling to return to his or her country of nationality because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution. Persecution or the fear thereof must be based on the alien's race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion. Asylees don't enter the US as refugees; rather, they petition for legal status once they are in the US or at a point of entry
diversity rationale
US Supreme court justice Lewis Powell Jr's opinion, expressed in Regents of UC vs. Bakke (1978), that race can be used as a selective factor in admissions as long as racial quotas are not promoted
long-term undocumented residents
undocumented persons who have resided continuously in US since Jan 1, 1982.
racialize
to attribute a racial character to.
refugee
a person who is outside his or her country of nationality and is unable or unwilling to return to that country because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution.
Refugee Act of 1980
legislation in which Congress attempted to regulate the flow and number of refugees who qualified for admission to the US
special categories of agricultural workers
undocumented immigrants who performed labor in perishable agricultural commodities for ninety days or more between May 1985- May 1996 and were admitted for temporary and then permanent residence under a provision o the Immigration Reform and Control of 1986.
cultural competence
achieved through the inclusion of all groups, not just ethnic minorities. ability to engage in actions or create conditions that maximize the optimal development of a client and client systems.
4 levels that require cultural competence
1) individual attitudes and beliefs: emotions, misinformation, biases
2) professional: ethical codes of conduct, standards of practice
3)organizational: monocultural programs, monocultural policies, monocultural structures and practical
4) societal: ethnocentric mono-culturalism, power to define ethnicity
monocultural organization
type of organizations. primarily eurocentric and ethnocentric.
-implicit or explicit exclusion of minorities, women and other opposed groups
-there is only one way- the traditional way
-culturally specific ways of doing things are neither valued or recognized
-strong belief in melting pot
nondiscriminatory organization
-more culturally aware and enlighten, they enter another stage
-inconsistent with policies and practices regarding multicultural issues
-leadership may recognize the need for some action but lacks the direction for systematic program
5 levels of cultural competence organization
1. cultural destructiveness
2. cultural incapacity
3. cultural blindness
4. cultural pre-competence
5. cultural competence
cultural destructiveness
1st level of cultural competence. 1st stage of incompetence. cultural based oppression, forced assimilation, even genocide
cultural incapacity
2nd stage of cultural competence. may not be intentionally destructive. lack capacity to help minority clients or communities because system remains biased. subtle messages to people of color that they aren't valued.
cultural blindness
3rd stage of cultural competence.
-provide services with the express philosophy that all people are the same.
-belief that helping methods used by the dominant culture are universally applicable. -ignore cultural strengths, encourage assimilation and blame the victim.
cultural pre-competence
4th stage of cultural competence.
-recognize their weaknesses in serving ethnic minorities.
-individual awareness comes to the forefront.
-proposed new programs, but may end up marginalized
-danger- false sense of accomplishment
cultural competence
5th stage of cultural competence.
-continuing self-assessment, individuals with high ethnic awareness, require workshops to increase cross cultural skills.
3 levels for individual cultural awareness
1. Awareness
2. Knowledge
3. skills
Awareness
1st level of individual cultural awareness.
-aware of negative reactions and emotions.
-identify positive and negative assumptions
-contrast own beliefs with others
-aware of stereotypes
Knowledge
2nd level of individual cultural awareness.
-have knowledge of groups, their life experiences, and cultural heritage, family structures, values.
-understand how race, ethnicity and culture affect personality behavior.
-describe regional, situational and sociopolitical contexts.
Skills
3rd level of individual cultural awareness.
-exercise institutional intervention
-not adverse to seeking consultations
-take responsibility for interfacing in the language requested
-aware of the limitations to instruments, policies
-work to eliminate biases
-take responsibility for educating clients about legal rights, social expectations.
-can differentiate among versions ethnic groups and incorporate specific knowledge about history, migration and current experiences.
Pope and Reynolds
-ethical and legal experience
-theory and transition
-administrative and management skills
-multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills
-teaching and training
-assessment and evalutation
-helping and interpersonal skills
7 competencies
1. appreciation and knowledge of history, current needs, strengths and community resources.
2. awareness of own biases and assumptions
3. content knowledge about culturally related terms such as acculturation, identity development
4. ability to use knowledge and awareness for sensitive interventions
5. an accurate self assessment of multicultural skills and conflict
6. an awareness of interpersonal process
7. an awareness of cultural assumptions underlying the helping process
filial piety
the parent child bond is more critical than virtually any other, and has implicit responsibilities including obligations that maintain family.
marianismo
the cult if Maria, Virgin Mary or the Madonna. Women are dichotomized into 2 categories; the good ones and bad ones.
good ones: self sacrificing, submissive, humble, religious and modest, like the Virgin Mary, she can only be sexual in a virgin way. sex is a wifely duty she must endure. fidelity is mandatory, her love is not romantic, rather biological.
bad ones: seductive, sexual, manipulative, cannot be trusted, use men for own benefit and likewise are used.
machismo
a man should be physically strong, indomitable in character and force, command respect from children, many sexual relationships. emotionally unavailable. being a man is pleasing a women and being a gentlemen.
fatalismo
nothing is under one's direct control
hijos de crianza
people that were raised by someone else. "mija de crianza is my best friend's daughter. I helped raise her"
ataques de nervios
falling to the floor and thrashing limbs, grinding of teeth, and clenching fists- unconsciousness. Puerto Ricans
5 Assets of Black Families
1. having a kinship bond with each other
2. having a strong desire to achieve
3. having a willingness to adapt to family roles
4. being strongly influenced by religion
5. having a strong work orientation
9 essential components of black nationalist movement
1. unity among all Black throughout the world
2. Black self-determination. The right to control their own lives
3. Community control. strong, all black communities and organizations to fight justice
4. education. Black led institutions raising people to levels of excellence and self-respect.
5. economic security: black control of the economy for the benefit of Blacks
6. armed self-defense. ability to fight back when unlawfully attacked.
7. social and moral uplift: the need to get rid of the effects of years of exploitation, neglect, and apathy, and to fight against police brutality or organized crime, and drug addition.
8. Rediscovery of the African heritage and opening up community with Africa
9. International of the black struggle
Cross's Black Identity Model 5 stages
1st stage: Pre-encounter
2nd stage: Encounter
3rd stage: Immersion- Emersion
4th stage: Internalization
5th stage: Internalizaion-committment
Pre-encounter
-low salience to Anti-Black
-they do not deny being Black, but see this physical characteristic as unrelated to their sense of happiness and well being
-value identity as religion, social status, profession
-race is a problem or stigma
-feel alienated from other blacks
encounter
-work around, slip through, or even shatter the relevance of the person's current identity and worldview.
- can be a single event, such as being confronted personally with racism
-eye-opening episode
-2-stage process: person must experience an encounter and personalize it
-doesn't have to be negative
immersion-emersion
-the person begins to demolish the old perspective and simultaneously tries to construct what will become his/her new frame of reference
-more familiar with old identity
-Immersion is the 1st step to immerse into an Afrocentric world.
-Immersion introduces a strong powerful, sensations, energized by rage, guilt, and developing sense of pride
internalization
-new identity is incorporated
-person feels more relaxed, calmer
-inner peace is achieved
-secure in his Blackness
-internal security
Internalization-commitment
-sustained long term commitment
-long term interest in Black affairs
-many descriptions to internalization stage apply to this one
black values
-time- present, immediate short range goals
-personal space and closer
-non verbal language important
-harmony with environment
-extended family
-age-elders and youth
-cooperative vs. competitive.
Culture
- communal and interpersonal
-relationships are most valued
-respect for elders
-collective and communal efforts- it takes a child to raise a village
-role flexibility with parents and siblings
Malcolm X and Black Power Movement
-drastically different ideas from civil rights movement
-redistribute power to society by any means possible
-develop independent black nation
-racial pride and Black nationalism, reject assimilation, integration would require Blacks to become a part of an oppressed system which devalues the group
1st Puerto Rican Wave
1900-1945
NY, Brooklyn, East Harlem, South Bronx
contracted and agricultural labor
2nd Puerto Rican Wave
1946-1964
the great migration
new areas of NY, NJ, Conn., Chicago
3rd Puerto Rican Wave
1965- Present Revolving Door Migration.
net migration and dispersion
Puerto Rican, Statehood and the Jones Act
-1917 Jones Act gave PRs US citizenship.
-PRs are subject to military duty
-1952 PR designated a commonwealth
-subject to most American laws
-can't vote in US and don't have formal rep in Congress
-don't pay income tax
-don't benefit from social programs
-All PRs are American citizens so immigration isn't a problem
Traditional Puerto Rican families
extended family provides primary source of emotional and material support for its members.
-class relations with family, distance with social world
-familism value: emphasizes the almost sacred bonds between relatives, the compelling obligations toward relatives, the duty to help and express concern.
-kinship extends through generations as well as horizontally beyond nuclear members
-reaches beyond strict kinship
--godparent relationship- compadrazgo
Contemporary Puerto Rican families
-language and culture separate the traditional PR lifestyle from the mainland.
-mainland faced with culture that values the individual
-highly egalitarian family norms
-high level of formalized relationships
-assimilation has not taken place in a thorough manner
-living in urban barrios facing high discrimination, PRs have often have little positive contact with dominant culture.
-close contact with the island has allowed them to main culture
-bicultural accommadation
personalismo
inner importance of the person, uniqueness of the person, uniqueness of the person, good worth of himself.
Puerto Rican values
spiritual and human is the focus, not commercial.
-being is more important than having
-Catholics, some Pentecostal
-Spiritism- visible world is surrounded by invisible world
-respect is vital
-aggression is controlled
Negative beliefs of Puerto Ricans
-lazy, submissive, immoral, propensities for crime and gang violence.
-viewed as drain on welfare system and social services
-stigmatized because of large families, unstable environment
Issei
1st generation immigrant, born in Japan
Nisei
2nd generation, American born, more acculturated than Issei.
Sansei
3rd generation, some were born in wartime evacuation centers of WWII, others after, most benefited from civil rights.
Nikkei
total group
mal de ojo
concept widely found in Mediterranean cultures. embodies the belief that social relations certain inherent dangers to the equilibrium of the individual
Japanese Values
-strong work ethic traced back to Confucius and Buddha.
-situational orientation; learning how to behave toward those above and below
Chicano
a term for Mexican Americans meant to reflect Mexican American dual heritage and mixed culture. Term emphasizes importance of equal American rights. Use word to relate their cultural and political struggles. some don't like it, seeing it as a name that reflects militant activism
exile
term usually given to the 1st wave of Cubans entering the country after the 1959 revolution
refugee
applied to Cubans who have entered the country as refugees, that is, those who have been given the special refugee status which places them to a different from ordinary immigrants
Santeria
-developed out of traditions of the Yoruba, one of the African people who were imported to Cuba during 16ht-19th centuries to work on sugar plantations.
-blends elements of Christianity and West Africa beliefs and as such made it possible for slaves to retain their traditional beliefs which appearing to practice Catholicism
-believe in one God, but also in saints or spirits know as orishas.
-St. Peter in Oggun, the Yoruba orisha patron of miners and workers. These orishas are believed to be able to intervene on one's behalf as catholic saints can.
-ritual devotions involving musical rhythms, offerings of food and animal sacrifice, divination with fetishes made of bones or shells, trancelike seizures, and other rites can reveal the sources of day to day problems and suggest solutions to them
1st official wave of Cubans
-ideological refugees, seeking to preserve economic pressures and lifestyle.
-majority escaped economical and political changes in Cuba in 1959
-upper class and upper-middle class
-came with education and occupational resources
-hope to settle temporarily
1962-1965 2nd wave of Cubans
-refugees in rafts
-blue collar workers
-farmers
-fishermen
Operation Pedro Pan 1961-1963
-children left from 6 to 16
-over 14,000 left under Catholic church without parents
-shelters and camps adopted
Freedom flights 1965-1973
Camreoca: port opened for people who wished to pick up family
- 5000 left
freedom flights: middle to lower class. small businessmen, skilled laborers, also semi-skilled. searching for economic opportunity. 25,000. young military age men, professionals, technicians and other skilled workers were not allowed to leave
Unique characteristics of Cubans
-refugee status with little citizenship problems
-not faced with same level of discrimination encountered by other groups
-funds set aside by Congress for bilingual programs to assign refugee adjustment to US
-welcomed due to anti-Castro sentiment and anti-communist efforts
-willing to adapt to the spirit of our revolution
Cuban resilience
family, visits to Cuba, religion, positive enforcement, avoidance, humor= choteo, style of remembering (here and now), survivor pride.
Latino
the term that describes persons residing in the United States whose ancestries are from Latin American countries in the Western Hemisphere. This term is more inclusive than Hispanic. It includes people from Latin America who don't necessarily speak Spanish.
Hispanic vs. Latino
used interchangeably. many groups reject Hispanic because it's too broad and it was given to the Latino group without consent. Some say Hispanic doesn't acknowledge the heterogeneity in the Latino group.
mestizo
the synthesis of Native and European people, cultures and lifestyles
Latino family dynamics
-class does not transcend familismo
-some relate familismo to excessive connectedness
-family dynamics are closely related to gender socialization
-strong sibling bonds
familismo
encompasses meanings about inclusiveness and participation in large family networks. this value suggests collectivism or interdependence vs. individual ownership.
controlarse
mastering the challenges oflike; it includes aguantarse, ability to withstand strews, no pensar, or avoid of focusing on disturbing thoughts
hembrismo
the quality of strength, endurance, courage, perseverance and bravery. sometimes these qualities are referred to macho-type traits. hembrismo is a descriptor like superwomen- those women who do it all and show determination to face and overcome every hardship
Mariel Wave of Cubans, 1980
-Primarily male
-primarily young and below 45 years of age
-primarily African descent
-from urban settings including Havana
-many had less than 6th grade education
-unskilled and blue collar
-90% settled in Southern Florida
Cuban Values
-Spanish and African heritage.
-indigenous people were decimated
-Cubanidad- to preserve the political and cultural
-Catholicism
-folk-healing traditions: Santeria
-Personalismo and interpersonal relationships
-hierarchy of family
-value of action, doing and present
-knowledge and learning because eso no te lo puede quitar nadie
-familismo
-choteo
-tuteo
Psychological Stages of Refugee Process
1. Early arrival (1 week to 6 months)
2. Destabilization (6 months to 3 years)
3. Experimentation and Stabilization (3 to 5 years)
4. Return to Normal Life (5 to 7 years)
5. Decompensation (1 week to 7 years)