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30 Cards in this Set

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anthropology
comparative, holistic science of human populations
comparative
studying human populations all over the world and in all historical periods to look for similarities and differences
holistic
studying all aspects of human biology and behavior
cultural anthropology (ethnology)
comparative study pf the ways of life of contemporary populations all over the world
operational definition
a description of the procedure that is followed to measure a variable
random sample
one in which all cases selcted have had an equal chance to be included
mode/model response
most frequently encountered response in a series of responses i.e. typical chracteristics
participant observation
living among the people being studied-- observing, questioning, and (when possible) taking part in the important events of the group one is studying
culture shock
a common psychological response to an unfamiliar culture, characterized by disorientation and anxiety.
ethnograpghy
description and analysis of a single society
postpartum sex taboo
prohibition of sexual intercourse between a couple for a period of time after the birth of their child
cross-cultural research
analyzing worldwide samples of many societies to test possible explanations of cultural variation
kwashiorkor "second-child disease"
a severe protein deficiency disease common in tropical areas
society
a group of people who occupy a particular territory and speak a common language not generally understood by neighboring peoples
culture
set of learned behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, values, and ideals that are characteristic of a particular society or population
subculture
the shared customs of a subgroup within a society
socialization
the lifelong process of the learning a culture, both formally and informally, consciously and unconsciously, beginning at the time of language acquisition
proxemics
the study of the cultural meaning of space
social constraint
the limitation or restraint of an individual's behavior due to his or her awareness of the opinions and probable responses of other people
integrated
the elements or traits that make up a culture are not just a random assortment of customs, but are mostly adjusted to or consistent with each other
ethnocentrism
attitude that other societies' customs ideas con judged in the context of that society's problems and oppurtunities
myth of the noble savage
tendency to view primitive cultures as ideal, better than our own, or closer to nature
cultural relativism
attitude that a society's customs and ideas can be judged in the context of that society's problems and opportunities
adaptation
appropriate response to environmental to environmental pressures or stresses
natural selection
1. organisms vary and these variations are often inherited by their offspring 2. organisms are capable of producing many more offspring than can possibly survive 3.on average, offspring that vary most strongly in directions favored by the environment will survive and reproduce
cultural ecology
analysis of the relationship between a culture and its environment
maladaptive
customs that diminish the chances of survival and reproduction in a particular environment
ecosystem
all the living and nonliving things in a natural habitat, along with their interrelations
subsistence technology
fodd-getting; tools and methods humans use to procure food
foragers
people who subsist on the collection of naturally occurring plants and animals; synonyms; food collectors, hunter gatherers.