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54 Cards in this Set

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What is Acculturation?
The exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuious direct contact; the cultural patterns of either or both groups may be changed, but the group remain distinct.
What is assimilation?
The process of change that a minority may experience when it comes into continuous interaction with a dominant culture; as a result, the minority is incorporated into the dominant culture to the point that it no longer exist as a seperate cultural unit.
What does contant amont societies creat possiblities for?
Domination of one group by another through various means, a siuation that is particulary characteristic of colonialst and expansionist eras.
What's cultural Imperialism?
The spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others, or its imposition on other cultures, which it modifies, replaces, or destroys - usually because of differential economic or political influence
What is Gramsci's known for?
Hegemony: applies to a politically hierarchical system wherein the dominant ideology of the elites has been internalized as "natural" by those of comparably less power and status. Gramsci and others use the idea of hegemony to explain why people conform even without coercion.
What does SCOTT(1990)differentiate between?
"public transcrips" and "hidden transcripts" of culturally and politically oppressed people.
What does public transcrip refer to?
Public interactions between dominators and the oppressed.
What does hidden transcript refer to?
The critique of power that goes on "offstage" where dominating people cannot see it.
What is Postmodern?
Refers to the blurring, and breakdown of established canons (rules, standards), categories, distinctions, and boundaries.
What's Postmodernism?
A style and movement originated in architecture that succeeded modernism. Compared with modernism, postmodernism is less geometric less functional, less austere, more playful, and more willing ot include elements from diverse times and cultures; this term is now used to describe comparable developments in many disciplies in arts, humanities, and social sciences.
What's post modernity?
Condition of a world in flux, with people on the move in which established groups, boundaries, identities, contrast, and standards are reaching out and breaking down.
What is Diaspora?
Members of any ethnic group and their offspring who settle down outside their homeland.
What is transnational?
a term used to describe the recently widespread cultural phenomenon that most migrants maintain their ties with their native land (phoning, visiting, sending money, wathcing "ethnic TV" programs etc. ) so in a sense they live multilocally (in different places at the same time)
What is Webster's def. of Art?
"the conscious use of skill and creative imagination esp. in the production of aesthetic objects; also: works so produced."
What's kottak's def of art?
An object or event that evokes an aesthetic reaction == a sense of beauty, appreciation, harmony, and/or pleasure; the quality, production, expression, or realm or what is beautiful or of more than ordinary significance; the class of objects subject to aesthetic criteria.
What's Dr. shih's def of art?
Art refers to the creative and skillful expression of feeling,s, views, beliefs, tastes, and experiences, intended to excite the senses, move emotions, and evoke ideas.
What are the seven basic forms of art that have numberous variations and many synthetic artistic forms?
2 dimention graphics, music, dance, sculpture, architechture, lit, and drama.
What is art concerned by anthropologist?
It's a cultural universal, it reflecdts aspects of human experiences, important way to understand cultural values and world views, the variety of artistic forms and sytles is an important aspect of human cultural diversity,
What are some of the approaches to the study of arts?
Conten/themes/or subjects, style, changes over time, social and psychological functions, relationships with other aspects of culture and society, creative process and the interaction of artist and their audience
What book did Franz boas write that delt with drawing on non-western art to critique cultural eveolutionism and expound cultural relativism?
Primitive art (1927)
Who wrote "art and life in new guinea (1936)" that was a classic of early british functionalism, which tires to demonstrate how art serves vital purposes for people?
Raymond Firth
What book did Nancy Munn write?
Walbiri Icongraphy (1973)
What was Walbiri Icongraphy about?
An thnographic study of the Walbiri graphic signs from Australia, which represents the increasing interests in symbols and semiotics in teh 1960's and 1970's.
Who wrote "the way of the mask which was about an examination of masks and myths on teh northwest coast of Canada by the great master of French structuralism?
Claude-levi-strauss
What does it mean for both art and religion feature the charactder of being exctraordinary or more than ordinary?
Neither is simply about the basic functioning of day-to-day life.
Artistic expressions are more than often inspired by what?
religious reasons
In order to underscore the sacred nature of religion, every culture in its own way does what?
dramatizes all aspects of religious life. Many froms of art have a religous origin.
In many societies artistic expression can serve as what?
a powerful means of communication with teh naural and supernatural worlds, a symbol of supernatural beings, means of symbolic communication aimed to convey cultural themes, to mobilize political or national solidarity, to commemorate deceased heroes, relatives, and friends, to eulogize virtues and achievements, and to express sorrows or resistance to oppression.
In complex societies, the production and transaction of art producs from an integral part of what?
market economy, crimes involving stealing, smuggling, and counterfeiting art products cause considerable social problems.
In all cultures there are certain forms of art that are used to express and maintain peoples what?
sense of their own identity
Artistic products can be a source of insight into what?
The fantasies that one group of peop;le have about another.
The totality of relations between organisms and their environment is what?
Ecology
The biophysical conditions and sociocultrual context by which an individual or community is surrounded is what?
Environment
The process of making modifications in response to certain environmental conditions so as to enhance fitness for existence is what?
Adaptation
The aspects and elements of an environment with which a population is directly engaged is what?
Habitat
The particular place that a population occupies in an environment is what?
Niche
What encompases ecolgical anthropology?
The study of the interrelationship between people and their natural and cultural environments. Ecological anthropology was not fully established until the 1960's. Since then this subfield of cultural anthropology has been making significant contributions to the study of global envirnmental problems by offering competing theories and ecological ethnographies.
Who is the outstanding american anthropologist who was most respoinsivle for the method of cultural ecolgy. His theory attempts to explain social systems by examining how people adapt to their environmental and technological circumstances. He wrote books such as "basin-plateau aboringinal sociopolitical groups, handbook of the south american indians, area research, theory and practice, and theory of culture change.
Julian H. Stewart
Who was teh preeminent force in ecological anthroplogy and one of the most influential and controversial american anthropolgist in the latter half of the 20th century. Major books include "the rise of anthropologial theory, cannibals and kings, and cultural materialism"
Marvin Harris
What is teh political, social, and economic and cultural domination of non-european territories and peoples by various European nations for an extended time?
Colonialism
What's the "age of discovery"?
A sea route around Africa's southern coast in 1488 and america in 1492).
How were local cultures devestated, populations exterminated?
The emerging European nationstates, such as portugal, spain, dutch republic, france, and England explored, conquesred, settled, and exploited large areas in Africa, Americas, asia, and oceania. Capitalist mode of production, Christianity, and european cultural values and social relations were imposed on colonized societies
Unequal economic relations tied what together?
The colonial world
How did unequal economic relations tie the colonial world together?
raw materials from colonies to european factories, cheap labor of the native in faraway plantations, world-wide relocation of African slaves and coolies from china, india, the philippines, and other nations to where cheap labor was needed, the creation of markets, in asia, africa, and south america for commodiite sproduced in Europte and other colonies.
What are the negative impacts of colonial expansion?
Ethnocide, genocide, ecocide, and epidemic diseases.
The forced destruction of a cultural system is what?
Ethnocide
The extermination of a human population is what?
genocide
What is not a homogeneous process?
Colonialism
What are the 4 experiences of hong kong?
The opium war of 1840, one hundred years of colonial rule, the pearl of east asia, the return to the motherland in 1997.
What were some quesions raised by the increasingly integrated global economy?
Basic human rights of workers in host countries, worldwide shifts of population, transformation of agricultural population into wage labor, exploitation of women and children.unemployment and job insecurity in hyperindustrial countries, social/cultural, and health cvost of peoplesin the host countries, and environmental problems.
From the 15th century to the 18th century, what happened?
European social-economic system (capitalism) was imposed on vast areas in Africa, Americas, Oceania, and asia through expanding colonialism, the labor and productivity of the colonies were harnessed to the european core in an unequal relationship.
What happened in teh mid 19th century?
European powers forcibly involve east asian countires in teh world syste. As a result, Japan started its own process of modernization (through a revolution known as teh meiji restoration (1868-1912) while china fell into a semi-colony of the western powers.
What happened during the cold war of (1945 - 1989)?
US + soviet union emerged as two superpowers representing respectively the competing ideologies of capitalism and communism. The world was divided into teh "west" (or capitalist and "east" (communist) camps. Most countries in teh world were attached to either of the two camps in one way or other.
What happened during the post cold war era?
With the collapse of the former soviet union, the united states became the only super power in the world, russia and the other countires in east european bloc turned to embark capitalist economy.