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43 Cards in this Set

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Bread wheat flour
- referred to as “strong/hard wheat flour.”
All purpose flour
– normally used for all-around cooking but will produce a satisfactory loaf.
Special flours such as rye, corn, barley, graham, sot bean, rice and buckwheat can be used in combination with white or whole wheat flour to produce a variety of flavor and texture when making breads. Alone, special flours lack the sufficient gluten to produce a quality bread product.
Rye flour
- medium color rye is available for Navy use
what are the function of water in dough making or baking?
Determines consistency of dough (elasticity) and gas retaining properties.
Regulates dough temperature during mixing.
Dissolves salt and sugar and aids in distributing these ingredients uniformly throughout the dough.
Enzymes act on flour and yeast to cause fermentation.
what are the function of water in dough making or baking?
Undesirable effect may occur when soft water is used. Add the proper amount of dough conditioner (or mineral yeast food). Soft water makes a soft, sticky dough because gluten is weak.

Hard water effects may be corrected by boiling or adding vinegar. Hard water makes the gluten too firm to be elastic. In this base the gas formed in the dough cannot expand to produce good bread.

In some bread recipes potato water or milk can be used to replace water. Milk produces a richer bread with a tender crust, and less grainy taste.
what are the function of salt in dough making or baking?
-Controls fermentation.
-Large amounts of salt kills the yeast and no fermentation occurs.
-Small amounts promote faster fermentation.
-No salt - finished product is coarse.
-Strengthens and tightens the gluten making the dough more elastic.
-Critical to the texture, flavor and color of the bread and whitens the crumbs by producing bread to a finer cell structure.
what are the function of yeast in dough making or baking?
Leaving agent
-Fermentation
-CO2 and alcohol are produced
-Effects depend upon amount used and temperature of the water.
-To condition the water
-To assist in the proper fermentation of the dough
list the three types of functional ingredients of yeast
1.Ammonium salts - to supply yeast with a supply of nitrogen for growth

2.Calcium salts - to produce the correct amount of hardness in dough water and to firm the gluten

3.An oxidizing agent - to give a firmer, less sticky dough
what are the function of sugar in dough making or baking?
Flavor
Color
what are the characteristics changes of sugar when heated?
-Tenderizer
-Taste
-Feeds the yeast
what are the function of shortening in dough making or baking?
-Provides volume
-Freshness
-Flavor
-Texture
-Color, depending upon sugar content
what are the function of non-fat dry milk in dough making or baking?
-Provides volume
-Flavor
-Texture
-Color
-Sugar content
what are the function of non-eggs in dough making or baking?
Richness
Flavor
Improved texture
what are the types of eggs that we can use in baking?
-Shell eggs
-Frozen whole eggs (bakery type)
-Dehydrated eggs
what are the function of non-spices and flavors in dough making or baking?
-Adds flavor or variety to the baked product
-Too much may retard fermentation
Lean dough
Bread formulas and yeast raised products that contain few or no enriching ingredients
Rich Dough
Bread formulas and yeast raised products that use a high percentage of ingredients like eggs, fats, and sugars
Waht is the Dough temperature after mixing?
Dough temperature after mixing should be between 78-82° F.
The fermentation room should be maintained at __-__° degrees and relative humidity at __-__%
The fermentation room should be maintained at 80-85° degrees and relative humidity at 74-78%
Fermentation occurs best at about __°
Fermentation occurs best at about 80°
Relative humidity should be about __%.
Relative humidity should be about 78%.
What are the changes during fermentation?
-Sugar is converted to serve as food for the yeast
Starches are converted into sugar
-Produces CO2 and alcohol
Enzyme proteins cause the gluten to become soft and stretchable
-As the dough ferments, acidity is developed in the dough, which also helps give it the ability to stretch
-Over fermentation causes sticky dough, pale crust color and poor shape
-Be sensitive to the development of too much acid
-A reduction of sugar may be necessary
During proofing what is the
Room or cabinet temperature?
Room or cabinet temperature should be about 80° F
Length of proofing time should be __-__ minutes
Length of proofing time should be 50-75 minutes
If humidity is determined by a wet and dry bulb thermometer, the spread should be about __° degrees F.
If humidity is determined by a wet and dry bulb thermometer, the spread should be about 6° degrees F.
What relative humidity?
Amount of moisture in the air in comparison with the total moisture the air is capable of holding
What is the final temperature of the dough, when it goes to makeu?
Temperature of the dough, when it goes to makeup, should be 6 - 7 degrees higher
When the internal temperature reaches ___ - ___° F., the bread is done.
When the internal temperature reaches 208 - 210° F., the bread is done.
Place on bread racks at least __” apart for cooling.
Place on bread racks at least 1” apart for cooling.
Cooling usually takes __ to __ hours
Cooling usually takes 1-1/2 to 2 hours
Bread will remain fresh when stored in a cool place and in a plastic wrapped bags up to __ hours.
Bread will remain fresh when stored in a cool place and in a plastic wrapped bags up to 96 hours.
Rope
- an infection of bread caused by the development of spores of a specific type.
Mold
- a spore that infects bread under certain conditions of temperature and humidity.
It is most important that the storage of the bread be planned so that no more than __ hours lapse before being consumed.
It is most important that the storage of the bread be planned so that no more than 48 hours lapse before being consumed.
Wht are the wo types of Hot rolls?
-Wheat type rolls
-Brown and serve rolls
What are the basic ingredients of bread
Flours
Water
Salt
Yeast
Sugar
Shortening
Milk
Eggs
Spice and Flavorings
What ingredient substitute will give bread a tender crust?
milk
What type of yeast does the US Navy use
dry active yeast
Name one of the five functions of shortening in bread
Volume, freshness, flavor, texture and color
Before panning the rounded pieces of dough how long should they be allowed to rest
12-15 minutes
What temperature should bread dough be after mixing?
78-82 degrees F
When baking bread what determines temperature and time
Size and shape
How long will bread last when stored in a cool dry place and in plastic bags
96 hrs