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107 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
One MANOVA over multiple ANOVAs:
A. MANOVA can be used with more than one dv
B. MANOVA reduces experiment-wide error
C. MANOVA best with a priori hypotheses about relationship between dependent and independent variables.
D. MANOVA involves simpler math
B. MANOVA reduces experiment-wise error- bc one (as opposed to many) tests means fewer errors. (both are good for multiple dvs)
Compared to decentralized networks, centralized networks:
A. Best for complex tasks
B. Best for easy tasks
C. Less effective but preferred by employees.
D. More effective and more preferred.
Centralized networks are best
Court ordered competency evaluation. During MMPI, client jumps up and admits to crime.
A. You are obligated to included the information, it is court ordered.
B. Obligated, privilege is waited because mental status is part of the defense
C. Obligated because of Tarasoff
D. Not obligated
D. Not obligated, because no indication they waived consent. Also, cannot use evaluation for competency to determine guilt, you should ONLY include information related to competency.
Which is least likely to cause secondary impotence?
A. Medication
B. Alcohol use
C. Diabetes
D. Old age
D. Old age is LEAST likely to cause secondary impotence.
Interpersonal therapist working with grief would most likely:
A. Connect grief to other significant early losses.
B. Help client connect to how loss is affecting current therapeutic relationship
C. Build up positive relationship with client and avoid the topic until the end.
D. Modify maladaptive behaviors under the assumption that psychological change follows behavioral change.
B. Connect the loss to the current therapy relationship.
Simon's decision making model suggests decision makers.
A. Consider all alternatives and pick the best.
B. Consider alternatives until an acceptable one comes up.
C. Consider only alternative with a 50% or greater chance
D. Rely on affective rather than cognitive reactions when selecting a response.
B. Simon says, we are laxy and just think till we find something decent. We arent "econs"
Release of sex hormones by gonads is dependent on signals from:
A. Medulla
B. Amygdala
C. Thalamus
D. Hypothalamus
D. HHypothalamus kicks off the signal for HHormone release by gonads or pituitary glands.
Wernicke's, Broca's and Conduction Aphasia share what difficulty?
A. repeating what is said
B. word prosody
C. reception
D. expression
A: All the aphasias have difficulty repeating (becuase its receptive and expressive).

(Prosody = pitch/intonation)
Low LPC leaders would most likely say:
A . I love flextime!
B. Lets make some changes around here!
C. Lets paint the office new colors!
D. First one to hand in this report wins a gift card!
D. Low lpc leaders want tasks and achievement.
High scatter around regression line:
A. High heteroscedacity
B. Low heteroscedacity
C. Low homoscedacity
D. Low correlation coefficient.
D. High scatter at regression means low correlation coeffiecient.
LEadership qualities vs. Management qualities:
A. Rational, persistent, tough minded
B. Problem solving, persistent, independent
C. Visionary, authoritative, tough minded
D. independent, innovative, flexible.
D. Leadership qualities include visionary, creative, flexible, inspiring, courageous, independent
A. Conditioning determines behavior
B. Belief determines behavior
C. Self attribution determines behaviors
D. Internalized role constructs determine behavior
B. Belief determines behavior!
Depth perception development:
A. Kinetic, pictorial, binocular
B. Binocular, kinetic, pictorial
C. Kinetic, binocular, pictorial
D. Binocular, pictorial, kinetic
C. Kinetic, binocular, pictorial
An organization decides to makes changes based on jobs charactersistics assessment. What is least likely to be affected?
A. Motivation
B. Satisfaction
C. Absenteeism
D. Quality of work
D. Quality of work is least likely to be affected. Jobs characteristics model seems to only impact satisfaction, absenteeism, turnover, motivation, not actaul quality of work.
Which of the following is negative punishment:
B. Overcorrection
C. Premack principle
D. Time out
D. Time out (take away something to get behavior to stop)
Tricyclics vs MAOIs:
A. Better for vegetative depression
B. Better for atypical depression
C. More side effects
D. Less effective for panic
Better for vegetative. (try-to-cycle you up!)
If test has lower validity for whites than blacks, you;d say race is a:
A. Confounding variable
B. Criterion contaminator
C. Discriminant variable
D. Moderator variable
D. Moderator- influences the relationship between test (predictor) and performance. (criterion)
Who is mostly to raise very aggressive children.
A. Attentive but controlling parents
B. Loving but laissez-faire parents
C. Frequent and intermittently violent parents who are controlling.
D. Frequent and intermittently violent parents who are laissez-faire.
D/ frequent, intermittently violent but laissez fair parents have the most aggressive children.
Big five were determined by:
A. Classical test theory
B. Lexical
C. Criterion keying
B. Lexical approach for the big five- atheoretical, just a dictionary.
Best way to handle excesively aggressive kids:
A. Time out and behavioral plans
B. Social skills training
C. catharsis
D. explaining consequences
B. Social skills training.
Why are personality disorders listed separately in DSM?
A. To not be overlooked
B. To not overshadow axis I disorders
C. Different etiology
D. Different functional interference than axis I
A. Its actually to not be overlooked
A. Willingness to exert effort
B. Likelihood of effort leading to performance.
C. Likelihood of performance leading to outcomes
D. Value of outcomes
C. Instrumentality is the likelihood of performance leading to outcomes.

(EExpectancy= EEffort)
Parent has to nag son more and more to stop his aggression. LAst time, he stopped teasing after 16th request. The boy was:
A. Escape conditioning
B. Avoidance conditioning
C. Stimulus discrimination
D. STimulus generalization
A. Escape conditioning. (Avoidance conditioning is avoiding the behavior once you get the cue)
Freud's latency = Erikson's
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy Vs. Shame
Initiative vs Guilt
Industry vs. inferiority
D. industry vs. inferiority
All of these but one are part of brief psychotherapy:
A. Time limited therapy
B. Lack of theoretical orientation
C. Effective for acute symptoms
D. Encourages positive transference
B. You DONT lack theory in brief psychotherapy.
Suicide rate for african american males.
A. Higher than white teen males, but increase in both.
B. Lower than white teen males, but increase in both
C. Higher than white, but recent decrease in both
D. Lower than white, decrease in both
B. Lower than white, but increase in both overall
Rejected and neglected kids both start at new school.
A. Rejected finds acceptance, neglected stays neglected
B. Neglected get accepted, rejected stays rejected.
C. Both better accepted
D. Both more neglected
B. Neglected get accepted, rejected stay rejected.
According to walker, why do battered women stay?
A. Trauma history in family causes them to believe battering is normal
B. Costs of leaving and remaining are about equal
C. Woman fears the abuse will worsen if she leaves
D. Woman lacks knowledge about resources
B. Costs and benefits of leaving feel equal
Telling leaders are best when employees low in ability and in responsibility. A telling leader is most likely to be:
A. Low task, low relationship
B. Low task, high relationship
C. High task, high relationship
D. HIgh task, low relationship
D. Telling leaders are high task, low relationship (just get it done!)

(Hi/hi would be selling smooth talker)
In creating a test batter, you increase predictive validity by having subtests relate how?
A. High correlation of each to highest correlated skill.
B. Low as possible, close to .00
C. No higher than average of each of the four subtests
D. Equal to the sum of squared correlations of each test with each skill.
B. Low correlations between them will yield a more varied and useful test that is also more efficient.
Child anger management training has been criticized for:
A. Limited positive effects due to focusing on individual
B. Limited positive effects due to focussing on behavior
C. Developmentally inappropriate due to childrens inability to identify thoughts and feelings
D. Developmentally inappropriate due to childrens inability to control thoughts and feelings
A. Limited because focuses too much on the individual - should include the social as well.
Compared to younger, older adults with depression least likely:
A. Memory problems
B. anxiety
C. hopelessness
D. expressed sadness
D. Older adults (perhaps because of culture they were raised in) less like to show expressed sadness when depressed.
Incidence of OCD for Males and Females begins to differ at age:
A. 3
B. 6
C. 12
D. 18
B. Gender differences becomes apparent at 6 because earlier peak onset for males (6-15), females its 20-29.
Consistent predictors of teenage suicide:
A. Depression, loss of popularity, avoidance of social situations.
B. Depression, use substances, antisocial bx
C. Substance use, body weight, level of social acceptance
D. Drugs, cigarettes, depression.
B. Depression, substances and ANTISOCIAL Behavior
Which is not characteristic of western culture bound values?
A. Cause-effect approach
B. Openness and intimacy
C. Clear distinction between mental and physical well-being
D. Strict adherence to a schedule.
D. Schedule is a class-bound, not culture bound variable. (others are culturally bound??)
Interrater Reliability:
Kappa Coefficient
Kappa of .93 means two tests:
A. Measure what they are supposed to
B. Have high agreement between raters
C. Are not reliable
D. Present difficult items
B. Have high agreement
Difference between insanity and psychosis:
A. Insanity is a legal term, psychosis is mental health term.
B. Insanity is a legally broader term and subsumes psychosis
C. Insanity is outdated term no longer applied, psychosis used in mental health and legal literature
D. Insanity referes to disturbances in thought and emotion, psychosis affects thoughts only.
A. Insanity is a legal term that means cant distinguish right or wrong. Psychosis is a psychiatric term. (NOT C, because psychosis does not imply cant distinguish right from wrong?)
Which assesses convergent validity?
A. Heterotrait-monomethod
B. Monotrait-heteromethod.
C. Heterotrait-heteromethod
D. Monotrait-monomethod
B. Convergent validity: Mono/hetero.
According to Kohlberg and Piaget, which is not true?
A. Moral development rooted in cognitive development
B. Peer interaction promotes moral development.
C. Moral development occurs in an invariant sequence of stages
D. May be differences across cultures, especially in early stages.
D. Neither believed that were cultural variables. (kohlberg admitted diffs at higher levels, but didnt admit this for females)
What did vygotsky stress over piaget?
A. Developmental levels
B. Cognitive development
C. Relationship with others in the family
D. Accomodation stage
C. Vygotsky more heavily emphasized social and cultural influences.
A deep dyslexic person is trying to read the word "cat" but when they err, most likely to say:
A. Dog
B. Tac
C. I dont know
D. At
A. Dog- those with deep dyslexia likely to have semantic paralexia- replace with similar in MEANING word
Which is best for internal consistency? (stats)
A. Kappa
B. Test-retest
C. Split half
D. alternate forms
C. internal consistency best with split half.

(Kappa best with interrater, test-retest for stability, alternate forms for test equivalence of test versions)
Authoritative parenting results in best academics for:
A. Whites
B. Hispanics
C. Blacks
D. Asians
A. Whites do best with authoritative parents (academically anyway)
Four year old lies even when thery are not in trouble or will experience negative consequences for not telling the truth.
A. Childs behavior probably normal, plenty of reasons to lie besides avoid trouble.
B. Children cognitively incapable of lying until older
C. Must be some negative consequences they are unseen, because children only lie to avoid punishment.
D. Suggest further evaluation for deeper pathology
A. Probably normal, all sorts of other gains to lying
African american family in for family therapy: Systems perspective would recommend:
A. Focus on multi-generational issues
B. See everyone individually.
C. Use behavioral techniques
D. Educate family about community resources
A. Systems implies multigenerational family. Also, in african american families greater emphasis on extended relations.
If you are aware of the serial position effect, pay more attention to material studied:
A. At the beginning
B. At the end
C. At the middle
D. At the beginning and End
C. at the middle.
Sex determinants suggests which characteristic most genetic as opposed to environmental?
A. Sociability
B. Dependency
C. Aggression
D. Anxiety
C. Aggression is most genetically sex linked/hormonal.
Relaxation response:
A. Decreased parasympathetic
B. Decreased sympathetic
C. Increased somatic
D. Increased autonomic
B. Relaxation response decreases sympathetic. (sympathetic is stress/relaxation related, flight/fight)
Dementia from head trauma:
A. Progressive in moderate to severe cases.
B. Progressive in repeated cases
C. Does not involve executive issues
D. Does involve executive
B. Progressive in repeated cases (think football players)
Post-menopausal woman will find reduced strogen:
A. Decreases arousal
B. Reduces interest in sex
C. Makes intercourse uncomfortable
D. Makes orgasm easier
C. Lower estrogen means less lubrication.
Brief dynamic therapy least likely to involve:
A. Focus on specific problems
B. Emphasis on restoring someone to previous level of functioning
C. Attempt to engender insight into unconscious
D. Use of free association and dream interpretation
B. Sounds like crisis intervention, not brief DYNAMIC psychotherapy. Does not assume, particularly dynamic psychotherapy that there was even a loss of functioning.
What do you have to have for a succesful malpractice suit?
A. A professional relationship
B. Significant neglect
C. Severe damage
D. Sufficient harm
D. Sufficient harm
A highly sensitive predictor would most likley result in:
A. Measurement error
B. Type II error
C. High false positives
D. high false negatives
C. too sensitive will lead to high false positives because it will lead to more positives overall.
Hardass managers assume the worst of their employees- they need constant supervision and guidelines:
A. Theory X
B. Theory Y
C. Theory Z
D. Management by objectives
A. Theory x keep employees on tight leash.
After stroke, numbness is left hand and cant respond to images in left visual field. This means damage to:
A. Broca
B. Wernicke
C. Right precentral
D. Right postcentral
D. right postcentral-

(precentral = motor)
Third stage alzheimers:
A. apathy and blunting
B. Depression and anomia
C. Irritability and anger
D. Paranoia and lability
A. Apathy and blunting. (by third stage seem to have given up the fight of d2 and bc1)
Offered compensation by publisher to lend name to endorse publications, advise and consult on acquisitions and marketing.
A. Etical if no APA affiliation is mentioned
B. Ethical if within area of competency
C. Ethical if within competency and based on honest opinion
D. Consult local ethics committee
C. If its your opinion- you cant make false, deceptive or misleading statements, so have to be honest.
Which are opposite terms for tests:
A. Subjective and aptitude
B. Norm-referenced and standardized
C. Speed and power
D. Maximal and ipsative
C. Speed and power are "opposite" - speed tests are "easy" and about how many, power is "hard" questions but no time limit - about mastery.
Most common anticholinergic side effect?
A. Tremor
B. Blurred vision
C. Diarhea
D. Weight loss
B. blurred vision - others include constipation, sweating, increased heart rate, dry mouth AND concentration, confusion, attention, memory probs
After a few sessions which is most likely benefit:
A. More Insight
B. More Interpersonal skills
C. Less hopelessness
D. Less stress
C. Less hopelessness
Early signs of HIV related dementia:
A. Cognitive slowing and apathy
B. Disorientation and aphasia
C. Executive function impairments
D. Speech impairments and odd behavior
A. First sign would be apathy and cognitive slowing.
If determining whether there is linear or non linear relationship, use: (stats)
A. Multiple regression
B. Logistical regression
C. Trend analysis
D. Principle components analysis
C. Trend analysis
Difference between meta-analysis and literature review:
A. Meta analysis is broader than lit review
B. Meta-analysis calculates an effect size.
C. Lit review uses no statistical hypothesis tests
D. Lit review calculates an effect size
B. Meta-Analysis calculates an effect size. (stats)
Head injury case with some aphasia, all but what are true:
A. Because minimal language loss, better odds
B. Right handed will mean milder aphasia
C. Most recovery in next three months
D. Lucky to be sixteen not sixty
B. What is NOT true is that Right handed will mean less aphasia. Left-handers generally have less aphasia.
Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder:
A. Fatigue, loss of appetite, GI or genitourinary symptoms
B. Joint pain, headache, sexual indifference.
C. Impaired coordination, paralysis, double vision
D. Heart palipation, chest pain, short breath, choking sensation
A. Undifferentiated Somatoform: Chronic fatigue, loss of appetite, gastrointestinal, genitourinary symptoms.

(D is panic attack, B&C sounds like somatization disorder)
Which section of ethics code includes: "Intent, organization, procedural considerations, scope of application of code" -
A. Intro
B. Intro & Preamble
C. Preamble
D. General principles and ethical standards.
A. The intro discusses intent, organization, procedural considerations, scope of application. of ethics code"
A. Formal ops- idea that others pay as much attention to you as you do to self.
B. Preop- focus on one aspect, ignore others
C. Preop- cant see others perspective
D. Concrete- two objects can be equal in volume even if in different form.
B. Focus on one aspect and ignore others (kinda aspy)
10yo with a 90 IQ has trouble using effective learning strategies: What would help?
A. Adaptive skills training
B. Metacognitive skills training
C. Mindfulness training
D. Elaborative rehearsal
B. Kid needs some metacognitive skills training to watch/monitor their own process and see what they need to do.
Researchers interested in detecting differential item functioning. What would they NOT use? (stats)
B. Mantel-Haenszel
C. Cluster analysis
D. Lord's Chisquare
C. Would not use cluster analysis for DIF - (a form of bias analysis).

(SIB-Simultaneous Item Bias test, MH and Lords Chi both identify DIF bias)
Asked by a fathers attorney to determine best parent to care, dad is close, mom lives in a faraway state.
A. Agree to evaluate dad and not conclude based on who paid.
B. Evaluate dad but dont send report until judge asks
C. Evaluate both children and both parents before giving opnion
D. Refuse to accept it since no firm predictions possible.
C. Cant testify about best fit unless you evaluate all parties including kids.
T-Score on MMPI of 100 on F scale:
A. Trying to fake good
B. Disoriented and confused
C. Defensive
D. Invalid
D. Test is invalid if high F scores:
Above 90 on F suggests invalid/random responses.
Group or individual social skills training best for shy, unemployed?
MANOVA (multivariate analysis of variance) best for:
A. analyzing effects of extraneous variable
B. Removing effects of extraneous variable
C. Two or more independent variables
D. Two or more dependent variables
D. Two + DVs.
Health belief model - what gives you most information:
A. Perceived severity
B. PErceived succeptibility
c. Perceived benefits
D. Perceived barriers
D. Perceived barriers dimension gives you most info on explaining decision making
Which is likely to be lowest for establishing reliability?
A. Split half
b. Test retest
C. Alternate forms
D. Cronbachs Alpha
C. Alternate forms least reliabile.
What % of women have full blown postpartum?
A. 1-5
B. 10-20
C. 20-30
D. 30-40
B. 10-20%
You do a study of all depressed patients, one in control group, one tx group: Biggest threat to external validity:
A. Regression to mean
B. Reactivity
C. Interaction between selection and tx
D. Pretest sensitization
C. Interaction between selection and tx will affect external validity. Bc maybe only works for VERY depressed population.

(regression to mean will affect internal validity)
3 dimensions of situational control by fiedler include all but:
A. leader employee relations
B. Position or legitimate power
C. Role expectations
D. Task structure
C. Role expectations have nothing to do with him and his LPC model which talks about position power, leader-employee relations and task structure
Police show up to ask you for patients address:
A. Cooperate
B. Tell them when your next appointment is
C. Require a warrant before turning anything over
D. Refuse info and notify client
D. Refuse to give it and let the client know so you can talk them into turning self in.
Best behavioral technique to reduce tantrums:
A. Modeling
B. Extinction
C. Positive reinforcement
D. Negative reinforcement
B. Extinction: remove the reinforcer, ie, time outs.
(reinforcements add behavior, not take away)
Disorganized/disoriented :
A. early maltreatment
B. Early daycare
C. mental retardation
D. difficult temperament
A. Early maltreatment
If you know or think records will be used in a legal proceeding:
A. Rewrite them to higher forensic standard
B. Replace psychological terminology with legal terminology
C. Maintain them as any records
D. Maintain them consistent with withstanding reasonable scrutiny in adjudicative forum
B. Special responsibility if you know it will be forensic/adjudicative- so D.
Female to male depression:
2.5:1 (really between 2 and 3)
A is greater than B, and B is greater than C, therefore A is greater than C. This is:

A. Inductive reasoning
B. Deductive
C. Symbolic thought
D. Pre-operational thought
A. inductive - reasoning from fact to rule

(deductive, from rule to a case
Your client is dating your best friend:
A. Refer them
B. Find a new best friend.
C. Discuss situation with client at once
D. Wait until conflict becomes clear
B. Discuss possible conflict and resolve it as soon as possible
Pooled variance assumes:
A. Sample sizes are equal
B. Sample variances are equal
C. pop sizes are equal
D. pop samples are equal
D. Population Variances are equal is Pooled Variance (PV=PV?)
MArlatt believes:
A. Substance use is over-learned and self maintaining by cognitive mediators and external reinforcers
B. Relapse of dependence is likely is non-dispositional attributes after a slip.
C. Addictions can be easily extinguished
D. Addictions related to need for power
A. Marlatt thinks its overlearned and maintained by cognitive and environmental factors.
You hear a whisper in a church but not a crowded concert becuase of:
A. All of nothing principle
B. Law of effect
C. Weber's law
D. Law of proximity
C. Webers law of stimuli- "just noticeable differences"
Extinction is often difficult because:
A. improper application of reinforcers
B. Accidental reinforcement
C. client expectations
D. practical constraints
B. accidental reinforcement (ie, grandma gives kid cookie when he whines, or substitute teacher, etc)
You condition a startle response by pairing a red light with a noise than naturally evokes startle response. Now, you add odor at the same time as light before the noise. After a few trials, what happens when just odor?
A. Startle response stronger than right light due to sensitization
B. Weak startle response due to habituation
C. No startle response due to blocking.
D. Depends on strength of original UC response to noise.
C. Simultaneous ends up with blocking, or NO response
Split-Brain Patients:
A. Cant name objects or comprehend info in ("projected on") the right hemisphere
B. Cant name objects or comprehend info in the left hemisphere.
C. Both can process linguistic info, even though language controlled by left
D. Both can process linguistic info, even though language controlled by right
C. Split brain patients can learn to process with both, even though generate with left
Systematic desensitization was originally:
A. Negative reinforcement
B. Counterconditioning
C. Stimulus discrimination
D. Avoidance conditioning
B. Originally systematic desensitization was part of counterconditioning to elicit anxiety and then have it eliminated by relaxation.
Best way to increase intra-rater reliability on subjective test:
A. Train them to pay very close attention
B. Have second raters rescore it
C. Use mutually exclusive and exhaustive rating categories
D. Ensure that instrument correlates with multiple criterion measures
A. INTRA: Train them
(inter- mutually exclusive/exhaustive also Kappa)
Why would you NOT use co-therapists according to Yalom. (Which is not Yalom's idea of good)
A. Observational range of 2 is better than one
B. Two means more transference, which can be helpful to observe and understand
C. Can support each other if one is a beginner
D. When they pursue separate agendas, clients can intervene and practice conflict management skills.
D. Yalom was worried that they many get too competititve and this will distract the group if they have to do something rather than have them model resolution.
Feminist theory compared to psychodynamic:
A. Disallows mother's role
B. Takes factors besides womans view of herself into consideration
C. Relies more on emphasis of biological mother
D. Encourages women to call men to task for oppression of women.
B. Takes factors other than womans view of herself into consideration (ie, how she is constructed by society??)
Which personality disorder has best prognosis?
A. Borderline
B. Paranoid
C. Dependent
D. Obsessive Compulsive
A. Actually, borderline has best prognosis - tends to clear up by middle age...
You write to your high school for records, and wife says tell them to throw away mine.
A. School has to comply with both.
B. Comply with mine, not my wifes
C. Comply with hers, not mine
D. Can disregard both.
A. Supposed to comply with both- destroy if requested, send if recquested.
All are true of blood injection phobia except:
A. strong vasovagal response
B. More common in women
C. Onset in late adolscence
D. Strong familial pattern
C. onset is NOT in adolescence, usually younger
Which will most likely cause confusion?
A. fluoxetine
B. Sertraline
C. Amitryptiline
D. Paroxeline
C. amitryptiline - the tricyclic will cause those anticholinergic side effects (physical and mental)
Cant recongize objects you are holding:
A. Agnosia
B. Ataxia
C. Aphasia
D. Akinesia
A. agnosia- cant identify objects
In multitrait-multimethod matric: Low heterotrait-monomethod coefficient means:
A. Low convergent
B. Low divergent
C. High convergent
D. High divergent
In OD context feedback is to:
A. Help clients understand diagnostic information collected
B. Provide clients with info on effectiveness of intervention
C. provide employees with info on their individual performance
D. Provide managers with info on employees concerns
A. Help clients understand diagnostic information that was collected.
Kohler and gestalt learning for:
A. unfinished business
B. insight
C. integration of all parts of the psyche
D. awareness of psychological boundaires
B. insight learning- kohler was the monkeys with the two sticks and the AHA experience
In structural family therapys first (of three) steps, which is best:
A. Family map
B. Labeling and reframing
C. Enactment
D. Tracking and mimesis
D. Tracking -identifying themes and values, and Mimesis- adopting their behavioral and affective style
Reolution Erikson's final stage:
A.Intimate relationships
B. Mature ego defenses
C. Promote the welfare of future generations.
D. Develop sense of meaning
D. sense of meaning "wisdom" in life.
Ultrasounds are least effecting for finding:
A. Shearing
B. Bruising
C. Swelling
D. Intra-cranial pressure
A. LEAST effective for finding shearing - nerve fibre tearing.