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35 Cards in this Set

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What was a prophet to do in ancient Israel?
The key text is Deut. 18:9-22.

The prophets were to speak “in the name of the LORD.”

In short, a prophet was to be a spokesperson for God, particularly to the covenant people.

His main job was to remind Israel of their covenant with the LORD, and their role as a light to the nations by way of their covenant faithfulness.

He also reminded them of the blessings and curses of covenant keeping and breaking (Dt 28, Lv 26).

His role was to annouce God's judgment upon God's people so they would remember the covenant and repent.

He always promised hope after judgment.

1-direct personal communication from God
2-the message concerns the things of God and his people and their mission
3-he faithfully recorded or uttered the revelation

Key texts: Dt 18:9-22, Ex 7:1, Nu 12:6-8, Jer 18:1-11
Key Interpretive Principles
Interpret/take the prophetical books on their own terms!

--God spoke to prophets through VISIONS - important herm. principle (cf. Nu 12:6-8, Ho 12:11, Is 6:1, Ez 1:1, etc)




Key Interpretive Principle: PROPHECY AND PREDICTION
prophecy is not simply "history of events before they come to pass." Rather prophecy has a moral purpose--to call its recipients to repentence or encourage their faithfulness (cf. Jer 18:1-11)

but, the predictive element in prophecy is not absent!
Key Interpretive Principle: POETIC ELEVATION
This was the Hebrew way of relating “high things.” -i.e. What it means to be the people of God!

Hence the poetry in the prophetical books. Poetry describes reality no less faithfully than scientific language, but it does so more imagistically. Zech 4:7
bc of the vision-revelation, prophecies came in figurative representation

The prophets frequently describe future redemptive-historical events (e.g. the coming of the Messiah’s kingdom) in terms of already familiar redemptive elements. --Ezekiel’s prophecy of the final temple. Familiar language and imagery, but the reality will look different when the prophecy is fulfilled.
Specific time reference is not part of prophet's intentions--his intent is to instill in the people of God a sense of obligation.

Thus -- foreshortening (Is 11) -- frequent presentation of things to come as immediately sequential, but there could really be much time between the events described. mountain peaks but not the vast valleys between them.

Prophets could be precise if important for message (Dn 9.2 - 70 yrs captivity)
Recurring Interpretive issue: Messiah
Primary value of prophecy is NOT in its explicitly messianic teaching.

Rather it is Christian scripture by virtue of being the front end of the story in which we are engrafted.

Thus, we don’t have to find Xp explicitly in every OT text

But there is explicitly messianic material we must not miss. Isaiah 7, 9, 11, 42, 49, 50, 52-53, Ez 34, Zech 6
Recurring Interpretive issue: Eschatology
“the latter days” (Is. 2.2); “the day of the Lord” (Amos, etc.) not always necessarily referring to just one specific time.

Predictions of future age--Israel and the church; reign of the Messiah
Recurring Interpretive issue: Sacrifice
Prophets do not condemn sacrifices per se (Am. 5.21-25; Ho 6.6, Isa. 1.11-15), but sacrifices offered unfaithfully

1) without integrity of heart

2) not exlusively to the LORD

3) not according to outward rites (levitical priests, temple, etc--cf. Amos).
Recurring Interpretive issue: Conditional and Unconditional prophecies
3 kinds of prophecy:

1) NO CONDITIONALITY - those whose direct aim is to disclose God's purpose of grace for his people--e.g. Messiah.

Grounds for these prophecies rest in God, so no conditionality.

BUT- Human response may be instrumental condition for their enjoyment of blessings

2) NO CONDITIONALITY - Those directed to other nations aligned against the LORD.

Express God's faithfulness to his people, and not delivered to nations, so UNCONDITIONAL

3) CONDITIONAL - Everything else. Becuase of

a) ethical aim of prophecy - to call Israel to be Israel

b) anthropomorphic mode of prophecy

(both blessings and judgments)
Recurring Interpretive issue: judgment and salvation
does not mean last judgment or going to heaven!!!

all prophecies can be averted with repentance. Not that they will. They could We can’t always read these terms in our modern, evangelical sense (last judgment, getting saved, etc.). We must look at the prophet’s context for what he meant by these terms. See p.10. on p.6 “ot and pog” (Isaiah 45:17)
Jonah: Date and Historical Setting
782-753 BC


Arameans-under pressure from Assyria

Israel-Prosperity, restoration of Solomon's borders. But...

rejection of Moses' worship commands (no Lev. Priests, no going to Judah--rejection of Davidic king)

No inner reality of Cov:

-oppression of poor
-alternate worship sites
-sexual immorality
-no love for commandments
Amos: Date and Historical Setting
767-753 BC


Arameans-under pressure from Assyria

Israel-HEIGHT of prosperity, restoration of Solomon's borders. But...

rejection of Moses' worship commands (no Lev. Priests, no going to Judah--rejection of Davidic king)

No inner reality of Cov:

-oppression of poor
-alternate worship sites
-sexual immorality
-no love for commandments
Hosea: Date and Historical Setting
752-724 BC


Arameans-under pressure from Assyria

Israel- prosperity remains, restoration of Solomon's borders. But...

rejection of Moses' worship commands (no Lev. Priests, no going to Judah--rejection of Davidic king)

No inner reality of Cov:

-oppression of poor
-alternate worship sites
-sexual immorality
-no love for commandments
Jonah: Significant Monarchs, Addressees
Jeroboam II

Amos: Significant Monarchs, Addressees
Jeroboam II, Uzziah (S)

Hosea: Significant Monarchs, Addressees
Jeroboam II

Uzziah (s)
Jotham (s)
Ahaz (s)

Jonah: Main message
To encourage Israel to remember their covenant role as a light to the nations.

To underscore the reality that the LORD will bring light to the nations--Will Israel participate?
Amos: Main message
--The people cannot expect to escape jdgment if they are acting like the nations around. (Rhetorical shape of 1-2)

--The LORD has known Israel and so will punish her (3:2)

--Her rejection of the LORD's worship (5:4-9), and her oppression of the poor (2:6-9) will bring about her judgment

--Israel's hope is in the restoration of the DAVIDIC kingship (9:11-15)
Hosea: Main message
Israel does not know the LORD (6:6). There is no genuine heart participation in the covenant--YHWH longs for them to embrace the covenant with their whole heart.

--Israel has been adulterous to the LORD, as Gomer to Hosea (1:2)

--But as Hosea still longs for Gomer, the LORD still longs for Israel and will eventually restore them (11:8-9, 14:4) (though not before judgment if they do not repent)
Jonah: Outline
I. God's first call to Jonah and his repsonse--flee to Tarshish (Pagans obey)

II. Jonah's prayer from the belly of the fish

III. God's second call to Jonah and his obedience (Pagans obey)

IV. Jonah's repsonse to Nin's repentance
Amos: Outline
1-2: Judgment (Gentiles, Judah, Israel)

3-6: Indictment

7-9:10 - 5 Visions

9:11-15 - Epilogue - Restoration of DAVIDIC kingdom
Hosea: Outline
1-3: Hosea's marriage as a parable
4-14: The parable spelt out
Micah: Outline
1-2: Judgment and Deliverance

3-5: False leaders denouced

6-7: Hope in darkness
Jonah: Key verses
1:1-3 and 3:1-3 Word of the LORD came to Jonah...Jonah...

4:10-11--You pity the plant...should I not pity Nineveh?
Amos: Key Verses
3:1-2-You [Israel] only have I known, thus I will punish you

5:4-9--Don't worship at Bethel and Gilgal! Do justice and righteousness

8:1-7 "The end has come" Coming judgment

9:11-15 "I will raise up the booth of David" Restoration of DAVIDIC kingdom
Hosea: Key Verses
11:8-9 "How can I give you up, O Ephraim?" the LORD longs for Israel, will not destroy them.

13:4-8 "I am the LORD your God from Egypt" Israel's covenant history with the LORD

14:1-9 "Return O Israel, to the LORD your God" Plea to Israel to return to the LORD, assurance that he will yet love them
Micah: Key Verses
6:6-8 LORD is not pleased with (your) sacrifices--do justice, love kindness, walk humbly with God.

7:18-20 "He will again have compassion on us" God's promise of compassion
Micah: Date and Historical Setting
740-687 BC

Assyria-Rising under Tiglath Pileser III

Destruction of Samaria in 722

Syro-Emphramite War

Revolt of Judah, Defeat in Sennacherib in 701

Judah--Jotham - fairly good (did not tear down high places)


Micah: Monarchs and addressees



Addressed to Judah
Micah: Main message
God expects his people not to rest content with simply having the external markings of the covenant (Micah 6:6-8)
--they must be just as God is just.

God has provided saving deeds that are there to foster the well being of this corporate entity.

Yet Judah is starting to resemble the evil NK, thus they are not laying hold of what God wants to bless them with. (Micah 1-2)

Exile and restoration--4:10, 7:18-20
Jonah: Unique Contributions
♦A disobedient prophet serves as a portrait of Israel.
♦Portrays pagans who repent (Phoenician sailors, Ninevites) as the godly example in distinction to God’s people who ignore their vocation to be a light to the world.
♦The book ends without closure in Jonah’s final conversation with God. This leaves the reader hanging, as if to ask “You are Jonah—What’s your answer? Will you repent of your false course and own your calling to be a light to the nations?”
♦Accentuates the conditional nature of prophecy in this case by the word play on “evil” from Jer. 18:8.

-only prophet that is all narrative (didatic narrative)

-only prophet record to deliver prophecy to gentile nation

-emphasis on Israel's role as a light to the nations
Amos: Unique Contributions
♦Israel has received enormous privilege, and therefore has great obligation: “You only have I known of all the families of the earth; therefore I will punish you for all your iniquities” (3:2).

♦Structure of chs. 1-2 functions like Nathan’s parable: “It captures your approval of God’s justice so you can see yourself as justly liable to punishment” (Syllabus 23).

♦ Am. 9:11-15 is a description of the restoration of the Davidic kingdom. Since Amos is addressed to the N. Kingdom, this section encourages the N. Kingdom to return to the Davidic Dynasty (locus of God’s covenant promises and blessing) and Levitical Priesthood (proper worship) (Syllabus 23, 27).

♦Amos overturns the popularly held notion that the “day of the Lord” was a day when God would vindicate Israel. Rather, the day was when God would vindicate himself, in this case meaning judgment of his people (2:16; Syllabus 24).

--Underscores that the problem with the religion of Israel is her rejection of the Davidic king
Hosea: Unique Contributions
♦Most extended use of the image of God’s marriage with his people. Extensive characterization of Israel’s syncretism and apostasy as “whoredom” (Syllabus 30).

♦Key theme is that the people do not know God.

♦ Gives deep insight into God's love and heart for Israel (Hos 11:8) How can I give you up?...

♦Reference to God’s creational covenant with Adam in 6:7
Micah: Unique Contributions
♦Despite Babylonian exile coming upon Judah, the remnant will survive (2:12-13; 4:9-13; 7:18-20), “Who is a God like you, pardoning iniquity and passing over transgression for the remnant of his inheritance? He does not retain his anger forever, because he delights in steadfast love” (7:18).

♦Heart of Micah’s message is 6:6-8: You can’t buy God’s favor by extravagant sacrifices. The simple way of life that delights God is justice, kindness, and humility (“golden rule of OT”).

♦The theophany in ch.7 is about the judgment of God’s people.

♦Filled with power and Spirit of the Lord (4:13): OT term for divine gifting, special equipping; used in NT. Micah’s job is to declare the sin of the people over against the false prophets.

♦Birth of the Davidic heir (Christ) is in Bethlehem (5:1-4), where David was born. Micah is reminding his hearers of the Davidic promises (Mt. 2:5 for NT. use).

♦Micah concentrates on social injustices perpetrated upon small landowners, farmers, and peasants (Syllabus 35).