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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the two main parts of the respiratory tract?
conducting and respiratory
what is the role of the conducting aspect of the respiratory tract?
to transport, warm, moisten, and cleanse the inspired air prior to reaching the respiratory portion
by which type of epithelium is the small area just inside the nostrils covered?
non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
by which type of epithelium are the nasal cavity and nasopharynx covered?
pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium
what is contained in the submucosa?
seromucous glands
what is the role of the seromucous glands in the submucosa?
to moisten the air and trap any inspired particulate matter
what is the role of the rich blood supply in the submucosa?
to warm the air
in which portion of the nasal cavity is the olfactory epithelium located? What is the role of this epithelium?
most superior portion; provides a sense of smell
what is the name of the feature which connects the middle ear and the nasopharynx? What is its role?
auditory tube; equalizes pressure and provides drainage
with which type of epithelium is the auditory tube lined?
pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium
with which type of epithelium are the oro- and laryngopharynx lined?
non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
in which aspect of the respiratory system is there an abundant diffuse lymphoid tissue?
nasopharynx
what is the name for the area of concentrated lymphoid tissue in the superior posterior nasopharynx?
nasopharyngeal tonsils
which structures are immediately downstream of the nasopharynx?
larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, etc.
by which type of epithelium is the larynx covered?
pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium
by which type of epithelium are the vocal cords covered?
non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
are changes in the conducting portion rapid or gradual?
gradual
what are the superior and inferior borders of the trachea?
superior border is superior aspect of larynx and inferior border is carina
what occurs at the carina?
the trachea bifurcates into two bronchi
by what is the trachea kept open? What accounts for the posterior aspect of the trachea (be specific)?
C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage; trachealis muscle (smooth muscle)
which 5 cell types characterize typical respiratory epithelium?
ciliated columnar cells, goblet cells, brush cells, neuroendocrine cells, and basal cells
which type of epithelium is typical respiratory epithelium?
pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium
do proximal bronchi exhibit typical respiratory epithelium? Distal bronchi?
yes; no, they show a transition to simple columnar ciliated epithelium
what is the transition of the epithelium from distal bronchi to alveoli? What happens to the cilia?
simple columnar to simple low columnar to simple cuboidal to simple low cuboidal to simple squamous; they gradually disappear
approximately how many alveoli are present in the lungs?
400 million
where are clara cells found? Which cells of the bronchi do these replace?
in the bronchioles; goblet cells
what do clara cells secrete?
protein/glycoprotein/lipid surfactant-like material
which cells of the bronchioles provide a regenerative stem cell function?
Clara cells
what is the form of the cartilage in proximal bronchi? In distal bronchi?
incomplete rings; plates and islets
what kind of cartilage is present in bronchioles?
there is no cartilage present in bronchioles
as bronchi extend into bronchioles, does the number of submucosal glands increase or decrease?
decrease
is there more or less smooth muscle in bronchioles than in bronchi?
more
are there more of fewer elastic fibers in bronchioles than in bronchi? What is the role of the elastic fibers in respiration?
more; passive exhalation
what is the name for the final element of the conduction portion of the respiratory tract?
terminal bronchioles
each terminal bronchiole branches into what? Which portion of the respiratory tract does this mark?
respiratory bronchioles; respiratory
respiratory bronchiole epithelium is interrupted with outpouchings of what?
developing alveoli
respiratory bronchioles lead into which structures?
alveolar ducts
what structure is found at the termination of an alveolar duct?
alveolar sac
which feature of capillaries and alveolar epithelium is shared?
basement membrane
what is the thickness of the blood-air barrier created by the capillaries and aveoli?
.1-1 microns
what feature covers 95% of the alveolar surface?
Type I pneumocytes
how does air pass from one alveolus to another?
via fenestrations in type I pneumocytes
what is the role of type ii pneumocytes?
produce surfactant
what is the composition of surfactant? What is the role of surfactant?
phospholipids; lower surface tension to prevent alveolar collapse
which cytoplasmic feature is unique to type ii pneumocytes?
lamellar bodies
which cell population, type I or II pneumocytes, are most responsible for alveolar epithelial renewal?
type II pneumocytes
which cells are responsible for the phagocytosis of debris within alveolar air spaces? Where else are these cells located?
alveolar macrophages (dust cells); interstitial tissue
which are located near the bronchial tree, pulmonary veins or pulmonary arteries?
pulmonary arteries
what are the 2 divisions of the lymphatic drainage of the lung?
deep and superficial
what are the names for the lymph nodes present at the root of the lung?
hilar nodes
why are hilar nodes of clinical importance?
when the nodes enlarge due to infection or cancer, they are often the first abnormality to be noticeable on a chest xray
which part of the lung has no lymphatic drainage?
alveolar parenchyma
is the nerve supply to the lung sympathetic or parasympathetic?
both
where do the parasympathetic nerves that innervate the heart originate? The sympathetic nerves?
vagus nerve; sympathetic trunk
does bronchiolar smooth muscle contract or expand with parasympathetic activation? With sympathetic activation?
contract; expand
what is the effect of asthma?
constricts bronchiolar smooth muscle to affect expiration
which drugs are used to treat asthma?
drugs that mimic sympathetic action
what are the 3 layers of the pharynx?
nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
where are bronchial and pulmonary veins located?
between segments of the lungs
are pulmonary veins more prominent proximally or distally on the alveoli?
proximally