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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the volume of peripheral blood in the human body?
5-6 liters
what are the 6 major components of plasma?
plasma proteins, nutrients, waste products, control substances, electrolytes, gases
what are the 3 cellular components of blood?
erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
what is the name of the layer containing leukocytes and platelets when blood is centrifuged?
buffy coat
what is the normal range for hematocrit in humans?
what is the normal value of hemoglobin in humans?
is it possible to have a normal hematocrit but a low hemoglobin level?
yes, this is exhibited in anemia
what is the life span of a mature erythrocyte?
120 days
what is the function of the biconcave disk shape of the erythrocyte?
to allow the maximum number of hemoglobin moleculed to be as close as possible to the cell membrane, thereby optimizing gaseous exchange of O2 and CO2.
what is the name for the process by which erythrocytes squeeze between epithelial cells?
which membrane proteins are responsible for a red blood cell's shape? Are these found on the extracellular or cytoplasmic side?
actin and spectrin; cytoplasmic
what is the average diameter of a mature erythrocyte?
7.2 microns
what are they two general categories of leukocytes?
granulocytes and agranulocytes
which, granulocytes or agranulocytes, contain azurophilic granules?
what is the lifespan of leukocytes? How are they killed?
a few days; apoptosis
which is the most numerous leukocyte? What are its two nicknames?
polymorphonuclear leukocyte; poly and neutrophil
what percentage of a normal white cell differentiation count do polys comprise?
do neutrophils have single- or multilobed nuclei? Do they have granules? Which color?
multilobed nucleus; yes; pale salmon-colored
what is the average diameter of a neutrophil?
12-15 microns
what is the main function of a neutrophil?
to combat infection by the phagocytosis of bacteria
which special molecule is found in the cytoplasm of neutrophils? What does this allow the cell to do?
glycogen; survive in an anaeorbic environment
what is the name for immature neutrophils that appear in the peripheral blood in response to acute infection?
band or stab
what is the average diameter of an eosinophil?
12-17 microns
what percentage of a normal white cell differentiation count do eosinophils comprise?
how many lobes does an eosinophil nucleus contain?
what is the color of the granules in an eosinophil? What is contained in these granules?
red-orange; major basic protein
upon which events will the eosinophil count rise?
parasitic infections and allergic reactions
what is the prevalence of basophils in a white cell differential?
less than 1%
what do the granules of basophils contain?
heparin and histamine
how many lobes does a basophil nucleus have? Can you see it?
2; no, the nucleus is normally obscured
what are the 2 categories of agranulocytes?
lymphocytes and monocytes
what percentage of a normal white cell differentiation count do lymphocytes comprise?
which cell is the largest leukocyte? What is its diameter?
monocyte; 12-20 microns
when monocytes leave the circulation to enter the extravascular space, what do they differentiate to become?
what morphology do platelets have?
what is the average diameter of a platelet?
1.5-3.5 microns
from what are platelets derived?
cytoplasm of the giant polypoid megakaryocyte of the bone marrow
what is the lifespan of a platelet?
10 days
what helps to maintain the plasma disk shape?
a circumferential band of microtubules
in which processes are granules in platelets involved?
platelet aggregation, clot formation, and clot resorption
what plays a role in adhesion and aggregation of platelets in areas of endothelial injury?
which protein is responsible for the formation of a clot?
which molecules are responsible for clot retraction?
actin and myosin
which protein is involved in clot lysis?
what is the difference between plasma and serum?
serum is the same as plasma except it does not have clotting factors
what is the normal range for Na+? K+
135-145mEq/L; 3.5-5.1 mEq/L
what is the normal value for HCO3? Cl-?
22-29 mEq/L; 98-106 mEq/L
what is the normal range for Ca++? Fasting glucose?
8.4-10.2 mg/L; 75-115 mg/L
how many erythrocytes are present per microliter of blood? Leukocytes? Platelets?
4.1-6x10^6 (males), 3.9-5.5x10^6 (females); 4000-10000, 200000-400000
what percentage of plasma is composed of water? of proteins? of other solutes?
91-92%; 7-8%; 1-2%
what is the term used for erythrocytes that have normal amount of hemoglobin? less than normal?
normochromic; hypochromic