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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is functional morphology?
being able to determine the function of a cell based upon the number and kinds of organelles present in the cell
all organelles are delimited by ____ membrane, except in the case of the ______ and the ______, which each have 2 membranes.
1; mitochondrion, nucleus
the characteristics of each organelle are defined, in large part, by which constituents?
how many subunits compose a ribosomes? where are the subunits assembled?
2; nucleolus
what are polysomes?
groups of ribosomes which perform translation at the same time.
free ribosomes create proteins which have where as their final destination?
what are 4 examples of proteins produces by free ribosomes?
1) soluble enzymes in the cytosol
2) nuclear enzymes
3) proteins for the replacement or repair of cell organelles
4) unique components of new plasma membranes
proteins synthesized on ribosomes located on RER are destined where? how do they get there?
outside the cell, plasma membrane, lysosome ; exocytosis
in which location, free ribosomes or on RER, are lysosomal proteins produced?
in which location, free ribosomes or on RER, are majority of new plasma membrane proteins created?
with what are proteins tagged for their final destination?
signal peptide
for a translated polypeptide to enter ER, which factors must be involved? through which of these does the peptide enter the ER? what energy molecule facilitates this process?
SRP (signal recognition protein), SRP receptor protein, and transcolon apparatus; transcolon apparatus; GTP
to what does SRP bind?
signal peptide
is GTP needed to open translocon apparatus? if not, how it is used?
no; used to dissociate SRP and receptor from translocon.
signal peptide is eventually cleaved by which protein?
signal peptidase
is the folding of a protein into secondary, tertiary, and quartenary structure energetically favorable or unfavorable?
favorable (spontaneous)
what kind of proteins are sometimes involved in the proper folding of a protein?
chaperone proteins
which ER, rough or smooth, has a lamellated appearance, like pita bread?
what is the main role of the RER?
protein synthesis
what is the principle type of protein found in RER (not a protein product but part of RER function)?
chaperone proteins
which post-translational modification is performed in the RER?
N-linked glycosylation
which, the RER or smooth ER, exhibits a tubuvascular morphology?
Smooth ER
what are 5 cellular processes in which SER plays a very important role and in which kind of cells do these processes take place?
1) glycogen metabolism (liver/muscle)
2) detox via p450 complex (liver)
3) Ca storage (skeletal/cardiac muscle)
4) lipid metabolism (all cells)
5) steroid metabolism (adrenal glands, ovary, testes)
following protein synthesis and glycosylation in the RER, where does the nascent protein travel?
Golgi apparatus
with what protein are vesicles leaving the RER coated with, as they are shipped to the Golgi?
at which end of the Golgi do proteins arrive from the RER?
at which end are they shipped off?
cis-Golgi; trans-Golgi
what is the name for the 'distribution center' in the Golgi?
trans-Golgi network (TGN)
what kind of system is most likely used for getting proteins to their extracellular targets?
receptor/ligand-like interactions
how do protein vesicles travel from RER to cis-Golgi network?
via microtubules with motor proteins
with what are vesicles from Golgi to ER coated?
with what are vesicles from ER to Golgi coated?
what information does an abundance of mitochondria give us about a cell?
high metabolic requirements, active cell.
what is the average width of mitochondria?
.5 micons
how many domains do mitochondria have? what are they?
4; outer membrane, inner membrane, intramembrane space, matrix
what is the name for the folds formed by the inner mitochondrial membrane?
how many moles of ATP are produces from 1 mole of glucose?
36-38 moles
are mitochondria capable of dividing?
yes, independent of cell cycle.
what is the average diameter of a peroxisome?
.2-1 microns
in which kind of oxidation are peroxisomes involed?
fatty acid (beta) oxidation
where are small fatty acids metabolized?
where is the difference between fatty acids metabolized in mitochondrion and peroxisome?
mitochondrion metabolizes smaller FA's and peroxisome oxidized larger FA's
which class of enzymes plays an active role in the breakdown of fatty acids and peroxides in the peroxisome?
catalases and oxidases
which marker in peroxisomes is useful in distiguishing the organelle from others in the cell?
which important phospholipid, which is found in myelin, is produced in the peroxisomes?
proteasomes are the sites of destruction for which molecules?
with what are materials destined for proteasomes tagged?
why do many peroxisomal diseases often lead to neurological disorders?
defects in plasmalogen production can have a profound impact on the workings of the nervous system.
do proteasomes degrade primarily endogenous or exogenous proteins? by what are the others digested?
endogenous; lysosomes
how many proteasomes are present in the average cell? how many proteases are present in each of these proteasomes?
20-30k proteasomes; 30 proteases.
hematoxylin has a positive or negative charge? is it basic or acidic? what color does it stain?
positive; basic; purple/blue
acidophilic substances are substances that have an affinity for which stain?
what are 3 general functions of organelles in animal cells?
1) congregate enzymatic reactions
2) segregate competing metabolic processes
3) separate harmful products from rest of cell
what is the organelle pictured here?
what is depicted in this image?
what are the 3 possible destinations for proteins produced in the RER and processed in the Golgi?
secretory vesicle, membrane vesicle, storage vesicle (lysosome)
which of the cytoskeletal element are important in the integrity of RER and Golgi?
Golgi apparatus
which organelle is dipicted in this image?
inactive due to lack of vesicles at TGN.
is this image an active or inactive form of Golgi? how do you know?
trans-Golgi Network (TGN)
which part of the cell does this image represent?
what is the difference between constitutive and non-constitutive protein formation?
constitutive proteins are released into extracellular environment in a non-discriminatory fashion. non-constitutive proteins wait for a signal to release to the outside.
which organelle is depicted here?
are all organelles inherited from the mother's egg or father's sperm?
mother's egg
which organelles are involed in the detox of ethanol, phenol, and formaldehyde?
what percentage of all fatty acids are metabolized by mitochondria?
how many enzymes are present in the average peroxisome?
around 50
what is the name for the disorder in which an organelle's function affects neurological function? which organelle is damaged in this case?
Zelwegger's syndrome; peroxisome
what is the width of a ribosome?
via which pathways are Golgi vesicles marked for export to lysosomes?
mannose-6-phosphate pathway (m6p)
which products are created de novo in the Golgi?
what percentage of misfolded proteins are tagged with ubiquitin?
which disease linked to emphysema is linked to protein cloggage in the ER?
a-1 anti-trypsin deficiency