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69 Cards in this Set

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what are the 3 types of cartilage?
hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage
with what is hyaline cartilage normally covered?
of what is perichondrium composed?
fibroblastic cells and chondroblasts
chondroblasts mature to become which cells?
what is the name for the chambers in which chondrocytes reside?
what is the name for the growth that occurs at the surface of the cartilage?
appositional growth
what is the term for the 'cell nests' that result from the cell division of chondrocytes?
isogenous nests
the growth of cartilage from within, via isogenous nests that secrete ECM, is termed what?
interstitial growth
what are the primary constituents of ECM in hyaline cartilage?
collagen II fibers and highly hydrated ground substance
the characteristic resiliency of hyaline cartilage is derived from which feature?
the highly hydrated ground substance
the avascular hyaline cartilage derives its nutrition how?
via constant replacement of nutrient-rich ground substance
the territorial matrix is characterized by its high concentration of which ECM elements? This matrix is found where predominantly?
proteoglycans; immediately surrounding cell nests
inter-territorial matrix is characterized by its high concentration of which ECM element?
Type II collagen
elastic cartilage is primarily differentiated from hyaline cartilage by the presence of which ECM element?
elastic fibers
fibrocartilage is characterized by the abundance of what ECM element?
type I AND type II collagen
perichondrium is found in which 2 types of cartilage?
hyaline and elastic cartilage
impaired cartilage function is most commonly manifested in which medical condition?
does cartilage have high or low regenerative capacity? Which type of cartilage is best able to regenerate?
low; fibrocartilage
what is a possible consequence of aged cartilage?
calcification of cartilage may compromise the function of which joints?
synovial joints
what is the name for the middle part of the bone? For the 'head' of the bone? For the place where appositional growth takes place? For the place between the shaft and the head?
diaphysis, episohysis, epiphyseal growth plate, metaphysis
the wall of a bone is made up of which type of bone (give 2 synonyms)? The interior of a bone is made up of which type of bone (give 3 synonyms)?
compact or cortical bone; cancellous or trabecular or spongy bone
what does Wolff's law state?
the architecture and distribution of compact and cancellous bone varies among the different bones of the body and reflects the different forces they are subject to.
which type of bone is most largely resposible for the metabolic role of bone in ion homeostasis? For what reason?
spongy or cancellous or trabecular bone; it has a larger surface area than compact or cortical bone
what is the name for the precursor cells that give rise to most cells in the bone?
osteoprogenitor cells
which type of cells in bone are responsible for the synthesis and maintenance of bone?
what is the bone's representative of the mononuclear phagocytic system?
of what is the organic component of bone composed (including which type of collagen)?
type I collagen, ground substance, structural glycoproteins
of what is the inorganic component of bone composed?
bone mineral
which type of material composes the bone mineral?
calcium phosphate
the bone mineral prevents bone from ______________ growth, limiting bone growth to _________________ growth.
interstitial; appositional
the outer surface of bone is covered by what feature? What kind of cells are found here?
periosteum; fibroblasts, osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts
osteoprogenitor cells give rise to which cell types in bone?
osteocytes and osteoblasts
collagen fibers from the periosteum often penetrate the bone matrix as what?
Sharpey's fibers
what is the name for the single layer of cells found at the center of all bones?
what is the name (give 3 synonyms) for the first bone tissue that is produced?
woven or immature or primary
what characterizes woven or primary or immature bone?
non-lamellar, random weave of bone tissue
what is the name (give 3 synonyms) for the bone which is laid out in well-defined layers called lamellae?
lamellar bone or mature bone or secondary bone
what are the 3 locations of lamellae in bone?
outer circumferential lamellae, inner circumferential lamellae, walls of osteons
inner circumferential lamellae line which feature of the bone? Outer?
endosteum; periosteum
interstitial lamellae represent what?
the remnants of former osteons
what is another name for an osteon?
Haversian system
through which bone structure do osteons maintain connections with each other?
what is the name for the space where the blood vessels supply blood to osteons?
Haversian canals
while Haversian canals constitue the vertical blood vessels, lateral connections between Haversian canals are called what?
Volkmann's canals
are osteons present in mature/secondary/lamellar bone?
woven or primary or immature bone is replaced soon after synthesis by which type of bone?
lamellar or mature or secondary
production of bone matrix by the osteoblast begins with the secretion of what, which is the organic component of the matrix?
which type of vesicles, formed by the osteoblasts, trigger the deposition of inorganic matrix on the collagen network?
alkaline phosphatase-rich matrix vesicles
what are the name of the 'bays' surrounding osteoclasts in bone?
Howship's lacunae or resorption bays
how do osteoclasts break down bone?
secrete digestive enzymes in an acidic compartment
the integrity of the acidic region surrounding an osteoclast is maintained by what? With what proteins is this region heavily stocked?
sealing zone; actin and integrin
which hormone, produced in response ot low calcium levels, triggers an increase in blood calcium levels?
PTH (parathyroid hormone)
which vitamen is theorized to play a role similar to PTH?
vitamin D
which hormone acts directly on osteoclasts to lower free calcium levels?
which type of cartilage is good for shearing forces?
chondrocytes differentiate from which cells? This differentiation is found in which type of growth?
chondroblasts; appositional
isogenous nests are formed from the mitosis of which type of cartilage cells?
what is the name for the lining of the marrow cavity in bones?
what are the 3 components of GAGs in cartilage? Which is predominant?
hyaluronic acid, keratan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate; chondroitin sulfate
are fibroblasts abundant in cartilage?
no, there are NO fibroblasts in cartilage
nutrients are provided to chondrocytes thanks to which feature of articulations?
which structure is responsible for binding periosteum to bone?
Sharpey's fibers
what are the contents of the two layers in periosteum?
cellular layer (inner) and fibrous layer (outer)
which cells of bone are commonly multinucleate?
how are osteoblasts involved in PTH signaling?
is it osteoblasts which signal osteoclasts to absorb bone and release Ca into blood
where are gap junctions between osteocytes located in relationship to cacaliculi?
are Haversian canals present in both trabecular and lamellar bone?
no, only lamellar.
matrix vesicles in formation of bone matrix contain ATP for which reason?
to activate alkaline phosphatases